Cases reported "Osteochondrodysplasias"

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1/273. Chondrodiatasis in a patient with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia using the ilizarov technique: successful correction of an angular deformity with ensuing ossification of a large metaphyseal lesion. A case report.

    Distraction through the physis (chondrodiatasis) is a controversial technique with unpredictable results. However, it has been used in the past for the lengthening and correction of angular deformities of long bones. We report the case of an 11-year-old patient with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) who presented with a severe recurvatum deformity of the left proximal tibia secondary to collapse of the tibial plateau into a large metaphyseal cystic lesion. Using the chondrodiatasis technique with a percutaneously applied Ilizarov circular frame, we were able to correct this deformity. Surprisingly, healing and ossification of the metaphyseal lesion was simultaneously observed at the end of the treatment, a finding which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously reported.
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2/273. Multiple disc herniations in spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda. A case report.

    Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) tarda is a group of inherited dysplasias in which the spine and the epiphyses of long bones are affected from late childhood. A 19-year-old male was diagnosed as SED tarda. He had a thoracic and then lumbar disc herniations which were separated by a 4-year interval. Surgical excision was performed for each disc herniation. This is the first case report of multiple disc herniations in SED.
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3/273. Homologous bone graft for expansion thoracoplasty in Jeune's asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy.

    adult tibial shaft from a bone graft bank was used as a solid homologous bone graft for midsternal expansion thoracoplasty in an infant with Jeune's asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy. The technique appeared successful, but the child grew out of her chest in her second year of life. Expansion thoracoplasty for Jeune's disease probably should only be reserved for children who survive their first year of life without major surgery.
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4/273. Unusual fan shaped ossification in a female fetus with radiological features of boomerang dysplasia.

    We report on a female fetus of 24 weeks whose clinical and radiological findings were compatible with boomerang dysplasia (BD). However, histopathology was unusual with a lateral fan shaped diaphyseal ossification. This has never been described either in typical atelosteogenesis I (AT-I) or in BD. The purpose of this report is to find out if this condition is a separate lethal bone dysplasia or another histological feature of the nosological group of AT-I and BD.
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5/273. achondroplasia-hypochondroplasia complex in a newborn infant.

    We describe the case of an 8-month-old girl with achondroplasia-hypochondroplasia complex. The diagnosis was suggested antenatally when obstetrical ultrasonography at 27 weeks of gestation showed short limbs, small chest, and macrocephaly. The father has achondroplasia due to the common G1138A (G380R) mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene, while the mother has hypochondroplasia due to the C1620G (N450K) mutation in the FGFR3 gene. Neither had had genetic counseling or molecular testing prior to the pregnancy. Antenatal ultrasound study at 29 weeks of gestation showed a large head, very short limbs, and a small chest; the findings were more severe than in achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia alone. The patient was born by cesarean section at 37 weeks of gestation and had rhizomelic shortness of limbs with excess skin creases, large head, and small chest, diagnostic of achondroplasia. Radiographs showed shortness of the long bones and flaring of the metaphyses. She had mild hypoplasia of lungs. Molecular testing showed both the G1138A and the C1620G mutations in FGFR3, confirming the diagnosis of achondroplasia-hypochondroplasia complex. At 8 months, she has disproportionate shortness of the long bones and a large head with frontal bossing and a depressed nasal bridge. Her chest remains small, and she is on home oxygen at times of respiratory stress. She has a large gibbus. She is delayed in her motor development and has significant head lag. To our knowledge, there is only one previously published report of achondroplasia-hypochondroplasia complex.
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6/273. Compound heterozygosity for the achondroplasia-hypochondroplasia FGFR3 mutations: prenatal diagnosis and postnatal outcome.

    We report on a male newborn infant, a compound carrier of heterozygous mutations in the FGFR3 gene causing achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia. The mother has achondroplasia and carries the common G1138 (G380R) mutation in the FGFR3 gene; the father has hypochondroplasia due to the C1620A (N540K) mutation in the same gene. The fetus was found to carry both mutations diagnosed prenatally by amniocentesis at 17.6 weeks of gestation, following maternal serum screening which showed an increased risk for down syndrome (1:337). Detailed fetal ultrasound studies showed a large head, short limbs, and a small chest at 22 weeks of gestation. The changes were more severe than those of either achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia. The patient was born by cesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation and had rhizomelic shortness of the upper and lower limbs with excess skin folds, large head, enlarged fontanelles, frontal bossing, lumbar gibbus, trident position of the fingers, and a narrow chest with a horizontal line of demarcation at the narrowest area of the chest. Skeletal radiographs showed shortness of the long bones and flare of metaphyses. He had respiratory difficulties and was treated with nasal prongs. seizures developed on day 2 of life and recurred on day 9 and responded to treatment with phenobarbital. brain computed tomographic scan showed possible grey matter heterotopia, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, and cortical dysplasia. To our knowledge, there are only two previously published cases of compound heterozygous achondroplasia-hypochondroplasia patients. The diagnosis was confirmed by dna mutation analysis of the FGFR3 gene in both cases.
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7/273. Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of the scaphoid bone.

    We report a rare case of dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (DEH) in the wrist of a 7-year-old boy. Clinical, radiological and histopathological manifestations are discussed. The correct diagnosis of DEH, however, was made by the confrontation of the radiological and pathological data. The radiologist should inform the pathologist correctly about the imaging findings in order to avoid misdiagnosis of the lesion as osteochondroma.
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8/273. Severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans (SADDAN): phenotypic analysis of a new skeletal dysplasia caused by a Lys650Met mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3.

    We previously discovered a novel missense mutation (Lys650Met) in the tyrosine kinase domain of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene in four unrelated individuals with a condition we called "severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans" (SADDAN) [Tavormina et al., 1999: Am. J. Hum. Genet. 64:722-731]. Here we present a more detailed clinical account of the SADDAN phenotype. The FGFR3 Lys650Met mutation results in severe disturbances in endochondral bone growth that approach and overlap those observed in thanatophoric dysplasia, type I. However, this mutation is most often compatible with survival into adulthood. Other unusual bone deformities, such as femoral bowing with reverse (i.e., posterior apex) tibial and fibular bowing and "ram's horn" bowing of the clavicle, are also seen in some patients. In addition to skeletal dysplasia, progressive acanthosis nigricans, and central nervous system structural anomalies, seizures and severe developmental delays are observed in surviving SADDAN patients. Despite its location within the same FGFR3 codon as the thanatophoric dysplasia type II mutation (Lys650Glu) and a similar effect on constitutive activation of the FGFR3 tyrosine kinase, the Lys650Met is not associated with cloverleaf skull or craniosynostosis.
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9/273. Spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia with normal stature: a case followed from infancy to skeletal maturity.

    Spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia is a rare skeletal dysplasia showing radiographic abnormalities in the epiphyses and metaphyses of the long and short tubular bones, and in the spine. There are very few reports of a case followed throughout the entire growth period. Here we report the case of a Japanese girl followed from 1 month old to skeletal maturity at 16 years old. She developed progressive kyphoscoliosis at 7 years old, and underwent a surgical correction of the spine at 14 years old. The diagnosis of spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia was made from examining all the follow-up radiographs showing abnormalities in the spine, long bones and hands involving epiphyses and metaphyses. She had normal stature--a rare finding in this condition.
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10/273. Homozygosity for a novel DTDST mutation in a child with a 'broad bone-platyspondylic' variant of diastrophic dysplasia.

    Atypical or variant forms of well-known chondrodysplasias may pose diagnostic problems. We report on a girl with clinical features suggesting diastrophic dysplasia but with unusual radiographic features including severe platyspondyly, wide metaphyses, and fibular overgrowth, which are partially reminiscent of metatropic dysplasia. The diagnosis was clarified by molecular analysis of the DTDST gene, which revealed homozygosity for a previously undescribed mutation leading to a Q454P substitution in the 10th transmembrane domain of the DTDST sulfate transporter. Molecular analysis may be of particular value in such atypical cases.
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