Cases reported "Osteolysis"

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1/4. Tumor-like tuberculosis of the sacrum.

    Isolated tuberculosis of the sacrum in a 43-year-old woman manifested as functional impairment of the right lower limb. Sacral tuberculosis is rare in patients with no history of tuberculosis. Another unusual feature was the tumor-like aspect of the lesion, with diffuse, ill-defined osteolysis of a large part of the sacrum and extension to the presacral soft tissues responsible for rectal displacement.
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2/4. Nerve sheath tumors involving the sacrum. Case report and classification scheme.

    Nerve sheath tumors that involve the sacrum are rare. Delayed presentation is common because of their slow-growing nature, the permissive surrounding anatomical environment, and nonspecific symptoms. Consequently, these tumors are usually of considerable size at the time of diagnosis. The authors discuss a case of a sacral nerve sheath tumor. They also propose a classification scheme for these tumors based on their location with respect to the sacrum into three types (Types I-III). Type I tumors are confined to the sacrum; Type II originate within the sacrum but then locally metastasize through the anterior and posterior sacral walls into the presacral and subcutaneous spaces, respectively; and Type III are located primarily in the presacral/retroperitoneal area. The overwhelming majority of sacral nerve sheath tumors are schwannomas. Neurofibromas and malignant nerve sheath tumors are exceedingly rare. Regardless of their histological features, the goal of treatment is complete excision. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be used in patients in whom resection was subtotal. Approaches to the sacrum can generally be classified as anterior or posterior. Type I tumors may be resected via a posterior approach alone, Type III may require an anterior approach, and Type II tumors usually require combined anterior-posterior surgery.
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3/4. Xanthoma of the sacrum.

    Xanthoma is a lesion containing abundant foamy histiocytes most commonly occurring in superficial soft tissues such as skin, subcutis, or tendon sheaths. The involvement of deep skeletal structures, however, is rare and has only been infrequently reported in the English literature. Most xanthomas occur in patients with hyperlipidemic disorders. We report a case of a xanthoma in the sacrum and ilium of a patient with hyperlipidemia type IIa, who had chronic lower back pain for more than 20 years. On radiographs the lesion appeared multiloculated and osteolytic with a thin sclerotic border and containing multiple nodular calcifications within its matrix. Computed tomographic images revealed a presacral soft-tissue mass that also infiltrated the adjacent sacroiliac joint and iliac fossa. On histologic examination, abundant areas of xanthoma cells and cholesterol clefts, typical of xanthoma, were present. The patient received simple curettage of the lesion, and his symptoms were markedly relieved.
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4/4. polyethylene wear debris and long-term clinical failure of the Charite disc prosthesis: a study of 4 patients.

    STUDY DESIGN: A clinical case series of 4 patients undergoing anterior lumbar revision due to failure of total disc replacement surgery. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical significance of polyethylene wear debris in salvage surgery after initial total disc replacement, the pattern and the mechanisms of polyethylene wear in the retrieved cores, and the extent of polyethylene debris in the periprosthetic tissues obtained from 4 patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous in vitro wear tests have demonstrated low wear rates for lumbar artificial discs, suggesting that implant wear may not be a clinically relevant issue with total disc replacement. However, only long-term clinical investigations with analysis of retrieved implants and periprosthetic tissue can ultimately establish the significance of polyethylene wear debris for total disc arthroplasty. methods: Starting in 2004, we began routinely performing salvage procedures in patients with failed total disc replacements. We report on the short-term outcomes of 4 patients at our institution who were revised with a Charite prosthesis (DePuy spine, Raynham, MA). Wear analysis of the retrieved prosthesis and histologic examination of the periprosthetic tissue were also performed. RESULTS: All of the retrieved polyethylene cores showed evidence of wear, but the extent and severity varied among the 4 patients. Wear and fracture of the core were associated with osteolysis of the underlying sacrum in 1 patient. Histologic examination of the periprosthetic tissues confirmed the presence of wear debris lying in inflammatory fibrous tissue. In 3 of the 4 patients, implant wear was associated with an unfavorable biomechanical environment (e.g., subsidence, migration, undersizing, and adjacent fusion). The mechanisms of wear included adhesive/abrasive wear of the central domed region of the polyethylene core, as well as chronic rim impingement, resulting in rim fatigue and fracture. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the clinical significance of polyethylene wear debris and the potential for osteolysis with total disc replacements. The authors recommend that patients undergoing lumbar disc arthroplasty receive long-term follow-up to monitor the wear and functional status of their implants.
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keywords = sacrum
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