Cases reported "Osteomalacia"

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1/90. Diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance imaging skeletal survey in a patient with oncogenic osteomalacia.

    Oncogenic osteomalacia is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by hypophosphatemic osteomalacia due to renal phosphate wasting. The same biochemical features are found in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia and sporadic hypophosphatemic osteomalacia with unknown etiology. Oncogenic osteomalacia is cured by resection of the responsible tumor. In contrast, patients with other types of hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia need long-term treatment with large doses of active vitamin D3. Therefore, detection of the responsible tumor for oncogenic osteomalacia has great clinical importance. However, there is no standard method for detecting the tumor for oncogenic osteomalacia, and the responsible tumor is often very difficult to be found. We describe a patient with adult-onset osteomalacia due to renal phosphate wasting. Although oncogenic osteomalacia was suspected, cranial, chest, and abdominal computed tomography scanning, urological and otolaryngological examinations, and detailed palpation for soft tissue mass failed to detect the responsible tumor. However, magnetic resonance imaging skeletal survey revealed a tumor in the right femoral bone. Resection of the tumor resulted in normalization of serum phosphate and renal phosphate handling. Because the most frequent causes for oncogenic osteomalacia are tumors in bone or soft tissue, magnetic resonance imaging skeletal survey is a very powerful method for detecting the responsible tumor. Vigorous search for tumors with this method in patients with hypophosphatemic osteomalacia would be helpful not only for proper management of patients, but also for clarifying the identity of sporadic hypophosphatemic osteomalacia.
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ranking = 1
keywords = hypophosphatemic, hypophosphatemic rickets, rickets
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2/90. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor-induced rickets.

    We describe two prepubertal girls with oncogenic rickets. The first patient, 9 years of age, presented with recent-onset lower-extremity pain. The second girl, presented at 4 years of age following a 9-month period of muscle weakness, bone pain, and poor linear growth. Laboratory analyses in both patients revealed hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphaturia; elevated circulating alkaline phosphatase activity was present in one of them. Radiographic evidence of a generalized rachitic process was evident in both cases. Computerized tomography of the paranasal sinuses and facial bones in patient 1 revealed a small lesion eroding through the inner table of the left mandibular ramus. Microscopic examination of this mass revealed a spindle cell neoplasm with chondroid material, dystrophic calcification, and both osteoclast-like and fibroblast-like cells. Prominent vascularity and marked atypia were present. These features are consistent with a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor of the mixed connective tissue variant. In the second patient, computerized tomography revealed a lytic lesion located in the right proximal tibia, with histologic features consistent with a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor of the nonossifying fibroma-like variant. Resection of each tumor resulted in rapid correction of the phosphaturia and healing of the rachitic abnormalities. A careful search for small or occult tumors should be carried out in cases of acquired phosphaturic rickets.
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ranking = 0.0037788741593793
keywords = rickets
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3/90. Hypophosphatemic osteomalacia demonstrated by Tc-99m MDP bone scan: a case report.

    Hypophosphatemic osteomalacia, a familial or rarely acquired disorder, is characterized biochemically by hypophosphatemia, decreased renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate, decreased intestinal absorption of calcium, and normal serum calcium. This report concerns a rare case of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia of unknown cause that was shown on Tc-99m MDP bone scanning.
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ranking = 0.16127711594786
keywords = hypophosphatemic
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4/90. Metabolic studies in congenital vitamin d deficiency rickets.

    Congenital rickets in 3 newborns of mothers with advanced nutritional osteomalacia, healed with maternal breast milk feeding when mothers alone were given calcium supplements and 7.5 mg of intravenous D2 and the mother baby pair protected from sunlight. Maternal plasma biochemistry indicated more severe vitamin d deficiency compared to their newborns (intrauterine foetal priority). The first dose of 7.5 mg of vitamin D3 and calcium supplements to mother healed osteomalacia but did not appear to heal the rickets of their breast fed infants (extrauterine maternal priority for vitamin D). A second dose given at 3 months interval healed the rickets in their infants and the biochemistry of the mother and baby returned towards normal. Congenital rickets developed when maternal bone mineral and vitamin D stores had been completely exhausted. Raised IPTH levels in the newborn suggested that foetal parathyroids were responsive to hypocalcaemic stimulus.
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ranking = 0.0050384988791724
keywords = rickets
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5/90. MEPE, a new gene expressed in bone marrow and tumors causing osteomalacia.

    Oncogenic hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (OHO) is characterized by a renal phosphate leak, hypophosphatemia, low-serum calcitriol (1,25-vitamin-D3), and abnormalities in skeletal mineralization. Resection of OHO tumors results in remission of the symptoms, and there is evidence that a circulating phosphaturic factor plays a role in the bone disease. This paper describes the characterization and cloning of a gene that is a candidate for the tumor-secreted phosphaturic factor. This new gene has been named MEPE (matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein) and has major similarities to a group of bone-tooth mineral matrix phospho-glycoproteins (osteopontin (OPN; HGMW-approved symbol SPP1), dentin sialo phosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), bone sialoprotein II (IBSP), and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP). All the proteins including MEPE contain RGD sequence motifs that are proposed to be essential for integrin-receptor interactions. Of further interest is the finding that MEPE, OPN, DSPP, DMP1, IBSP, and BMP3 all map to a defined region in chromosome 4q. Refined mapping localizes MEPE to 4q21.1 between ESTs D4S2785 (WI-6336) and D4S2844 (WI-3770). MEPE is 525 residues in length with a short N-terminal signal peptide. High-level expression of MEPE mRNA occurred in all four OHO tumors screened. Three of 11 non-OHO tumors screened contained trace levels of MEPE expression (detected only after RT-PCR and Southern 32P analysis). Normal tissue expression was found in bone marrow and brain with very-low-level expression found in lung, kidney, and human placenta. Evidence is also presented for the tumor secretion of clusterin (HGMW-approved symbol CLU) and its possible role as a cytotoxic factor in one of the OHO patients described.
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ranking = 0.16127711594786
keywords = hypophosphatemic
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6/90. Recurrent malignant variant of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor with oncogenic osteomalacia.

    Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor is a rare neoplasm which causes osteomalacia or rickets. The tumor typically follows a benign clinical course. Even in the rare malignant cases, local recurrence and distant metastasis are uncommon. We report on an example of a malignant phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor which recurred several times over 16 years concurrently causing hypophosphatemia, bone pain, and osteomalacia. Following each surgery, symptoms and hypophosphatemia improved. The patient died of disease 17 years after the first surgery. Histologically, the initial tumor was composed of small spindle cells with clusters of giant cells, prominent blood vessels, poorly formed cartilaginous areas, and crystalline material. Cytological atypia was minimal. Following multiple recurrences, the tumor demonstrated areas of high-grade sarcoma exhibiting marked pleomorphism, numerous mitotic figures, and p53 overexpression. This case illustrates the potential lethality of incompletely removed phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors.
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ranking = 0.00062981235989655
keywords = rickets
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7/90. Hypophosphatemic rickets presenting as recurring pedal stress fractures in a middle-aged woman.

    Stress fractures frequently occur from overtraining. When stress fractures recur, underlying metabolic abnormalities should be ruled out. We report a middle-aged woman in whom such an evaluation demonstrated previously undiagnosed hypophosphatemic rickets after she presented with recurring stress fractures in her feet. Treatment with phosphate and calcitriol was associated with clinical improvement that would likely not have occurred without this intervention. Any patient with recurring stress fractures should be evaluated with several screening laboratory tests, metabolic bone x-rays, and a measurement of bone mineral density.
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ranking = 0.17996501754387
keywords = hypophosphatemic, hypophosphatemic rickets, rickets
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8/90. IgA-kappa type multiple myeloma affecting proximal and distal renal tubules.

    A 45-year-old male was admitted because of chest pain, lumbago, and bilateral ankle pain. Examination disclosed hypophosphatemic osteomalacia, acquired fanconi syndrome, and abnormalities in distal nephron such as distal renal tubular acidosis and renal diabetes insipidus. Further exploration revealed IgA kappa multiple myeloma excreting urinary bence jones protein (kappa-light chain). Renal biopsy revealed thick basement membranes and elec-tron-dense crystals in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Immunofluorescent studies revealed deposition of kappa-light chain in renal tubular epithelial cells that caused the renal tubular damage. Although the osteomalacia was relieved by medical treatment, the urinary bence jones protein and the renal tubular defects were not improved by the chemotherapy for the myeloma. The patient died of exacerbation of multiple myeloma at 50 years of age.
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ranking = 0.16127711594786
keywords = hypophosphatemic
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9/90. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism after high-dose phosphate therapy in adult-onset hypophosphatemic osteomalacia.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of adult-onset hypophosphatemic osteomalacia treated with orally administered phosphate and complicated by tertiary hyperparathyroidism. methods: We present pertinent clinical, radiologic, and laboratory details of the study patient for a period of more than 20 years and discuss the few reported cases of tertiary hyperparathyroidism attributable to prolonged phosphate therapy. RESULTS: A 49-year-old Jordanian man, who had been diagnosed at age 26 years as having sporadic adult-onset hypophosphatemic vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia, presented with severe right hip pain, severe osteopenia with lytic bone lesions, and hypercalcemia after prolonged oral treatment with phosphate and vitamin D. These clinical, radiologic, and biochemical findings, in conjunction with a very high serum parathyroid hormone level, indicated the diagnosis of tertiary hyperparathyroidism, which was substantiated histopathologically. CONCLUSION: physicians should be aware of the potential for development of tertiary hyperparathyroidism in patients receiving prolonged oral phosphate therapy.
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ranking = 0.96766269568715
keywords = hypophosphatemic
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10/90. A case of neuroendocrine oncogenic osteomalacia associated with a PHEX and fibroblast growth factor-23 expressing sinusidal malignant schwannoma.

    Oncogenic osteomalacia is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome that is characterized biochemically by hypophosphatemia and low plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and clinically by osteomalacia, pseudofractures, bone pain, fatigue, and muscle weakness. We present a patient with a malignant schwannoma as the underlying cause of this disorder. A permanent cell line (HMS-97) derived from this tumor showed evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation by immunohistochemistry and of neurosecretory activity by electron microscopy. The cell line did express PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases located on the X-chromosome) and FGF-23 (fibroblast growth factor-23) transcripts on northern hybridization; however, none of the known mutations from the related mendelian disorders of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets or autosomal-dominant hypophosphatemic rickets could be detected. Tumor cell (HMS-97)-derived conditioned medium did not inhibit phosphate transport in a standard opossum kidney cell assay and in animal experiments. The medium also showed no PTH1- or PTH2-receptor-stimulating bioactivity. HMS-97 cells might be useful for further studies that aim to determine the genetic mechanism that leads to the observed PHEX and FGF-23 expression, both of which might have a direct role in the pathogenesis of oncogenic osteomalacia. In addition, these cells might be a useful tool for the investigation of neuroendocrine Schwann cell function and autoimmune peripheral nerve disease.
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ranking = 0.35489155278709
keywords = hypophosphatemic, hypophosphatemic rickets, rickets, dominant
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