Cases reported "Osteomyelitis"

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1/839. ochrobactrum anthropi bacteremia.

    ochrobactrum anthropi (O. anthropi ), formerly known as achromobacter CDC group Vd, is a gram-negative bacillus that is aerobic, oxidase producing, and nonlactose fermenting. This organism has been found in environmental and hospital water sources and has pathogenic potential in humans. Most reports in the literature of O. anthropi bacteremia are associated with intravenous line infections. We describe a case of bacteremia with O. anthropi in a 33-month-old boy with acute osteomyelitis. O. anthropi bacteremia also has been reported in immunocompromised hosts. Rarely, O. anthropi has been a cause of soft tissue or bone infection.
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2/839. nocardia osteomyelitis in a pachymeningitis patient: an example of a difficult case to treat with antimicrobial agents.

    Antimicrobial agents played a miraculous role in the treatment of bacterial infections until resistant bacteria became widespread. Besides antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, many factors can influence the cure of infection. nocardia infection may be a good example which is difficult to cure with antimicrobial agents alone. A 66-year-old man developed soft tissue infection of the right buttock and thigh. He was given prednisolone and azathioprine for pachymeningitis 3 months prior to admission. Despite surgical and antimicrobial treatment (sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim), the infection spread to the femur and osteomyelitis developed. The case showed that treatment of bacterial infection is not always as successful as was once thought because recent isolates of bacteria are more often resistant to various antimicrobial agents, intracellular parasites are difficult to eliminate even with the active drug in vitro, and infections in some sites such as bone are refractory to treatment especially when the patient is in a compromised state. In conclusion, for the treatment of infections, clinicians need to rely on laboratory tests more than before and have to consider the influence of various host factors.
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3/839. femur osteomyelitis due to a mixed fungal infection in a previously healthy man.

    We describe a previously healthy, 22-year-old man who, after a closed fracture of the femur and subsequent operation, developed chronic osteomyelitis. Within a few days, infected bone fragments, bone, and wound drainage repeatedly yielded three different filamentous fungi: aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, and Chalara ellisii. Histologic examination of the bone revealed septate hyphae. After sequential necrotomies of the femur and irrigation-suction drainage with added antimycotic therapy, the infection ceased and the fracture healed. This case is unique in that it is the only known instance in which a long bone was affected in an immunocompetent individual, with no evidence of any systemic infection, by a mixed population of two different Aspergillus spp. and the rare filamentous fungus C. ellisii. Environmental factors that could potentiate the infection include blood and edema fluid resulting from the surgical procedure and the presence of the osteosynthetic plate.
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4/839. Propionibacterium as a cause of postneurosurgical infection in patients with dural allografts: report of three cases.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Although propionibacterium acnes is a common inhabitant of human skin, it is an uncommon pathogen in postoperative infections. We report three cases of postoperative wound infection/osteomyelitis caused by P. acnes. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Three patients underwent craniotomy for a supratentorial meningioma and had a dural allograft at the time of closure. The patients presented several weeks after surgery with clinical evidence of a wound infection. INTERVENTION: All patients were diagnosed with P. acnes infection and treated for this pathogen with appropriate antibiotics. The bone flap was removed in two patients. After antibiotic therapy, all patients demonstrated no further evidence of infection. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first published report of P. acnes infection in patients with a dural substitute. The source of infection cannot be confidently ascertained; however, two patients had strains of P. acnes from one brand of graft, which were indistinguishable by pulsed field gel electrophoresis typing.
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5/839. osteomyelitis associated with peripheral vascular disease secondary to diabetes mellitus.

    diabetes mellitus and arteriosclerotic vascular disease have been found to be the predisposing factors of osteomyelitis associated with peripheral vascular disease (10). A diabetic person is more susceptible to osteomyelitis because of the microangiopathy, peripheral neuropathy and decreased resistance to infection. In diabetes mellitus there can be microangiopathy which results from the proliferation of the endothelium of the intima and thickening of the basement membrane. This further contributes to a sluggish blood flow. In the patient with arteriosclerotic vascular disease, the lumens of the arterioles and arterioles are compromised by the atheromatous plaques. The anatomic structure of the blood supply to bone along with the pathologic membrane thickening, allows for slowing of blood. This slowing of blood flow causes micro-thrombi and enhances bacterial growth. In diabetes mellitus it has been shown that there is a decreased immunologic response which, along with the above, contributes to the sheltering and proliferation of bacteria in the small bones of the foot.
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6/839. Aspergillus osteomyelitis in a child who has p67-phox-deficient chronic granulomatous disease.

    Here we describe Aspergillus osteomyelitis of the tibia in a 9-year-old boy who has an autosomal recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). The patient showed a p67-phagocyte oxidase (phox) deficiency, which is rare type of CGD in japan. The initial treatment which consisted of surgical debridement and antibiotic therapy with amphotericin b (AMPH), did not control the infection. aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) pure isolated from drainage fluid and necrotic bone tissue demonstrated less susceptible to antifungal agents, including AMPH, fluconazole and flucytosine. Recombinant interferon gamma was then administrated, and it was effective in controlling the course of severe invasive aspergillosis. This report indicates the use of interferon gamma might be helpful in control for Aspergillus osteomyelitis of the tibia in a child with CGD demonstrated p67-phox deficiency refractory to conventional therapy with AMPH.
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7/839. Recognition and significance of pulmonary bone embolism.

    embolism of bone marrow to the lungs is a quite frequent finding after trauma but transport and deposition of solid bone is rarely seen, which may simply be because pulmonary calcifications are not recognized as bone fragments. We report on three patients with embolism of bone spicules to small lung arteries of about 0.5 mm in diameter which were plentiful in two of the patients on postmortem examination. However, the true nature of the emboli was only recognizable after decalcification of lung tissues. It appears that trauma occurring in a septic bone lesion has the greatest chance to provoke bone embolism. The bone spicules do not usually occlude vessel lumina and thus do not severely disturb the blood circulation in the lungs. The bone fragments become covered by endothelium and can remain recognizable for months or even years.
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8/839. Destructive bone disease in early syphilis.

    Although destructive bone disease is a well-known complication of tertiary syphilis, osteitis or osteomyelitis are not commonly recognized as complications of early (primary or secondary) syphillis. A patient with secondary syphilis characterized by generalized lymphadenopathy, perianal condyloma lata, and positive rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) tests also complained of headache, right should pain, and right anterior chest pain and swelling. Roentgenograms showed mottled osteolytic lesions consistent with previously described luetic bone disease. biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of syphilitic osteomyelitis, and treatment with penicillin resulted in prompt resolution of symptoms.
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9/839. Neutrophilic dermatosis-associated sterile chronic multifocal osteomyelitis in pediatric patients: case report and review.

    Atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) and sweet syndrome are neutrophilic dermatoses that share some common features. Sterile chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis is a rare association of these neutrophilic dermatoses that has only been reported in children. We report a 3-year-old girl who initially presented with pain in her left hand and right leg. Roentgenograms and bone scan revealed findings of multifocal osteomyelitis affecting both femurs, the right tibia, left clavicle, right eighth costochondral junction, and left ulna. She was treated with antibiotics without improvement. Bone biopsy of the left ulna revealed histologic changes consistent with osteomyelitis, however, all cultures for bacteria, mycobacteria, and fungi were negative. She subsequently developed an ulcer surrounded by a violaceous, undermined border at the site of the bone biopsy, which also did not improve during antibiotic treatment. A biopsy specimen from this lesion demonstrated a dense perivascular and periappendageal infiltrate of neutrophils within the dermis and edema of the papillary dermis compatible with a neutrophilic dermatosis. She was treated with oral prednisone which resulted in resolution of skin lesions, bone pain, and soft tissue swelling. This case further documents the association between PG or sweet syndrome and multifocal sterile osteomyelitis.
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10/839. Reconstructive treatment of sclerosing osteomyelitis of the entire femur of 30 years' duration with avoidance of segmental resection.

    We describe the successful operative treatment of a patient with chronic sclerosing osteomyelitis of the femur in which en bloc resection was avoided. Therapy consisted of combined endoscopic, computed tomography and bone scan-guided fenestration and intramedullary reaming, with removal of all sclerotic zones and normalization of the cortical thickness. An adequate supply of oxygen to the area was ensured by improved vascularisation and the application of hydrogen peroxide. At the medium term follow-up no recurrence was seen, and hip and knee function was normal.
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