Cases reported "Osteonecrosis"

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1/32. Heat-induced segmental necrosis after reaming of one humeral and two tibial fractures with a narrow medullary canal.

    In three cases referred to our clinic (a simple fracture of the humeral shaft, a simple, closed fracture, and a wedge fracture of the mid-third of the tibia), bone necrosis had resulted from excessive heat produced by reaming extremely narrow medullary cavities (5-5.5 mm diameter) with the 9 mm front-cutting reamer as part of a reamed nailing procedure. In any one case, different degrees of damage can occur from the metaphysis to the diaphysis. Based on the clinical course and the histological evaluation, we postulate that heat-induced damage can be divided into four degrees of severity (0-3): Grade 0: no damage; no devascularization, no heat-induced damage. Grade 1: The heat damaged zone is cut away during subsequent reaming, the only damage is devascularization. Grade 2: The damaged zones are not eliminated by subsequent reaming. The bone is devascularized and heat damaged. Grade 3: The entire cross section of the bone including the periosteum is devitalized by exposure to excessive heat. Depending on the severity of additional damage to the soft tissues, grave consequences are to be expected and further operations are unavoidable. The effects of heat-induced damage are particularly critical in the presence of infection (cases 2 and 3). The fundamental aspects and the extent of heat necrosis will be discussed. After discussion with the AO Technical Commission on the cause of heat-induced necrosis, we would recommend the following preventive measures: 1. preoperative measurement of the smallest diameter of the medullary cavity in two planes. 2. reaming with the standard instrumentation (9 mm) only if the medullary cavity has a diameter of at least 8 mm at its narrowest point. 3. Extremely narrow cavities should first be reamed manually or an alternative to nailing should be sought. 4. It is strongly recommended that only sharp reamers be used in such cases and blunt or damaged reamers replaced.
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2/32. A novel surgical procedure for osteonecrosis of the humeral head: reposition of the joint surface and bone engraftment.

    A novel surgical procedure was performed on a 33-year-old woman with idiopathic osteonecrosis of the head of the left humerus. The operation involved repositioning of the joint cartilage and bone engraftment through her humeral head from under the greater tuberosity with shoulder arthroscopy. The patient wore an abduction brace for 8 weeks after the operation to hold the joint surface in its new position. This surgical procedure resulted in considerable improvement of the functional status of the shoulder by relieving pain and increasing range-of-motion. A preoperative radiograph showed stage IV osteonecrosis of the humeral head. However, at follow-up, repositioning of the joint surface and improvement of the necrotic bone were observed by radiography and magnetic resonance imaging.
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3/32. An operative procedure for advanced Kienbock's disease. Excision of the lunate and subsequent replacement with a tendon-ball implant.

    Excision of the lunate and subsequent replacement with a tendon implant was performed in 22 patients with Kienbock's disease between 1971 and 1985. This procedure was indicated mainly for those with advanced Kienbock's disease, i.e., stage III or IV according to the Lichtman classification. After the collapsed lunate is removed, a tendon-ball implant, made of the palmaris longus and plantaris tendons is placed in the resultant space in the carpus. A forearm distractor is applied during the operation, and distraction is continued for 4 weeks postoperatively. We report the long-term results in 15 patients, whose average follow-up period was 16 years and 3 months. One patient with infection was excluded from the study because the implanted tendon was removed 2 weeks after the operation, and 6 patients were lost to follow-up. All patients were free of pain after the surgery. The flexion-extension range of the wrist increased by 14.2 degrees, on average, after the surgery. The average grip power of the operated hand was 90.2% of that in the non-operated hand. Calcification and ossification were frequent in the implanted tendons a few months postoperatively. The average carpal height ratio (defined as carpal height/length of the third metacarpal) was 0.53 before the operation and 0.49 at the time of follow-up. According to Dornan's classification of clinical results, 9 of the 15 patients were classified as having excellent results and 6 as good.
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4/32. Unusual complications in an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    An unusual case of an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) associated with coronary aneurysms and pathological fracture of the adjacent lumbar vertebrae. The associated coronary lesions in cases of IAAA are usually occlusions. In the present case, it was concluded that a possible cause of the coronary aneurysm was coronary arteritis and the etiology of the pathological fracture of the lumbar vertebrae was occlusion of the lumbar penetrating arteries due to vasculitis resulting in aseptic necrosis. Inflammatory AAA can be associated with aneurysms in addition to occlusive disease in systemic arteries. The preoperative evaluation of systemic arterial lesions and the function of systemic organs is essential.
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5/32. osteonecrosis after treatment for heterotopic ossification in spinal cord injury with the combination of surgery, irradiation, and an NSAID.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVE: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication in spinal cord injury (SCI) that is often difficult to treat. Although surgery may become necessary, operative resection has been associated with complications and poor outcome due to a high recurrence rate. Additional methods of treatment to reduce the recurrence rate have been developed, including post operative irradiation and NSAIDs. This article presents three patients, who developed an osteonecrosis of the femoral head after the combined treatment for HO of surgery, irradiation, and an NSAID.
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keywords = operative
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6/32. A 'made in one piece' skeleton in a 22-year-old man suffering from sickle cell anaemia.

    A 22-year-old African male with known sickle cell anaemia was referred by a Congolese medical centre with a request to improve his poor physical condition. He was unable to walk, stand or sit because his large joints and his spine were either ankylosed or very rigid. Radiographs showed joint fusion from the third to the fifth cervical vertebrae, of both hips, of the left knee, and a bilateral osteonecrosis of the humeral head. There was no scintigraphic evidence for an active osteomyelitis (99mTc-MDP (methyldiphosphonate) bone scan, Tc monoclonal antigranulocyte scan and 99mTc sulphur colloid scan). To improve his mobility the right femoral head was resected in June 1997; 14 days later the left femoral head was resected. Four months after the resection of the right hip, a right uncemented total hip prosthesis was implanted on this side. One month later the same type of hip arthroplasty was performed on the left side. During the postoperative rehabilitation period the patient regained autonomy. We have found no previous reports of such severe and multiple joint complications in a single patient suffering from sickle cell anaemia.
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7/32. Hip-shelf procedure in the treatment of osteonecrosis of the transpositioned acetabulum after rotational acetabular osteotomy.

    Necrosis of the transpositioned acetabulum after rotational acetabular osteotomy (RAO) is a major complication characteristic of this procedure. This complication, although rare, has been thought difficult to treat. We report a patient with acetabular osteonecrosis and subsequent collapse after RAO that was effectively treated with a shelf operation, providing satisfactory remodeling of the hip joint. A 16-year-old female had undergone RAO for the treatment of developmental acetabular dysplasia. Postoperative radiography showed that the osteotomized acetabular fragment was unusually thin, and that the osteotome entered the hip joint during the surgery. Five months after the RAO, x-rays revealed significant collapse of the transpositioned acetabulum, and femoral head subluxation caused by postoperative osteonecrosis. Seven months after the RAO, the patient underwent a hip-shelf procedure. The remaining acetabular fragment was used in this procedure, according to the Spitzy method. Seven years after the second operation, favorable remodeling of the hip joint was observed; however, early osteoarthritic changes, including slight joint space narrowing, bone sclerosis of the new acetabulum, and bone cysts within the femoral head, were seen.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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8/32. Vertebral osteonecrosis associated with the use of intradiscal electrothermal therapy: a case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: This report describes a case of vertebral body osteonecrosis associated with the use of intradiscal electrothermal therapy. OBJECTIVES: To alert clinicians to a previously unreported complication, vertebral body osteonecrosis, after an intradiscal electrothermal therapy procedure. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The intradiscal electrothermal therapy procedure is a new treatment that has been advocated in the management of chronic low back pain of discogenic origin. The intradiscal electrothermal therapy procedure uses a fluoroscopically guided thermal catheter to heat the intervertebral disc. A review of the literature regarding this procedure has not revealed osteonecrosis as a complication. methods: The patient's work-up and postoperative course are documented, and all medical records were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: The patient's pain had improved only minimally at initial follow-up after L5-S1 combined anterior and posterior spinal fusion, undertaken after intradiscal electrothermal therapy failure. CONCLUSIONS: Intradiscal electrothermal therapy has gained increasing popularity in the treatment of discogenic low back pain, in large part because of its minimally invasive nature and perceived low risk for major complications. Previous reports in the literature have not noted any major complications associated with the proper use of this device. Clinicians should be advised that intradiscal electrothermal therapy can be associated with complications, which in the current case, led to osteonecrosis of the vertebral body.
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9/32. osteonecrosis of the patella and prosthetic extrusion after total knee arthroplasty.

    We report the occurrence of painless patella avascular necrosis and spontaneous prosthetic extrusion after total knee arthroplasty with lateral retinacular release, a previously unreported complication. The resultant wound was debrided and closed without complication or loss of knee function. We elected not to remove the fragments in this case because the patient remained asymptomatic, and the remaining patella almost certainly will reabsorb completely. We advise clinicians to pay careful attention to patella viability and prosthetic loosening when assessing postoperative radiographs of total knee arthroplasty, especially with lateral retinacular release.
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keywords = operative
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10/32. Idiopathic avascular necrosis of the metacarpal head.

    Avascular necrosis of the metacarpal head is a rare condition. Although the condition is associated with trauma, systemic lupus erythematosus, and steroid use, it can occur spontaneously without any obvious cause. Any metacarpal may be affected and the pathologic changes are similar to those described in other bones such as the femur. The diagnosis requires an index of suspicion in a young patient with spontaneous onset of symptoms localized to a metacarpophalangeal joint. magnetic resonance imaging is a useful early diagnostic tool when the radiographic findings are nonspecific or absent. The natural history of the condition is not known. Although symptoms may resolve with nonoperative treatment, progressive collapse of the metacarpal head and subsequent degenerative arthritis is a possible long-term outcome. curettage of the lesion and supplementary cancellous bone grafting has been reported to provide symptomatic relief in cases resistant to nonoperative treatment. A case is presented of idiopathic avascular necrosis of the head of the dominant ring finger metacarpal in a 27-year-old woman. The purpose of this report is to highlight the clinical presentation, radiographic features, pathologic findings, and outcome at 2 years after curettage and bone grafting.
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keywords = operative
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