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1/4. Insufficiency fractures in rheumatic patients: misdiagnosis and underlying characteristics.

    OBJECTIVE: To report 9 patients with rheumatic diseases referred to our observation due to presumed exacerbation of their rheumatic disease, subsequently diagnosed as stress insufficiency fractures, and to characterize the clinical profile of patients prone to this complication. methods: The medical history of the patients was reviewed with special emphasis on their rheumatic disease, its course, duration and management, their menopausal state, location and characteristics of the fracture, its presentation and the initial presumed diagnosis, the delay in diagnosis, imaging diagnostic tests performed and outcome. Three representative case reports are presented. RESULTS: All 9 patients were women, 8 of them aged 50 years old or more, 8 with rheumatoid arthritis and 1 with polymyalgia rheumatica. They were all treated with corticosteroids and had reduction in their bone mass density when evaluated. Three of the patients presented with subcapital fracture of the femur, 4 had fractures of metatarsal bones and 2 had fractures of the distal tibia. In only one patient was a stress fracture initially suspected. diagnosis was delayed by a mean of 31 days. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of stress fractures in patients with rheumatic diseases may often be delayed or missed, and thus improperly treated. Increased awareness of this entity is of importance for prompt diagnosis and correct management.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tibia
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2/4. tibia fracture after fibula resection for distal peroneal bypass.

    The lateral approach to the distal peroneal artery has been used by vascular surgeons for 25 years. No complications specifically related to this approach have previously been reported. We reviewed 18 cases of peroneal bypass for limb salvage using the lateral approach with fibula resection and found that two of these cases had ipsilateral tibia fractures within 1 year of the bypass. Eight out of 18 cases were women, and two of these eight had tibia fracture. Both women suffered from osteoporosis. We conclude that tibia fracture is a possible complication of this approach, especially in elderly women with osteoporosis.
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ranking = 3
keywords = tibia
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3/4. Painful transient tibial edema.

    PURPOSE: To report four cases of leg pain resembling transient bone marrow edema (TBME). MATERIALS AND methods: Four women aged 51-71 years had lower leg pain that regressed over 3-13 months. All patients underwent physical examination, clinical testing, radiography, scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. One patient underwent computed tomography; two underwent biopsy. RESULTS: All patients had tenderness at physical examination, and one had erythema and mild swelling over part of the leg. No laboratory results suggested systemic illness or infection. All had normal radiographs and abnormal bone scans, with increased radiopharmaceutical uptake in the tibial diaphyses. MR imaging showed decreased signal intensity with T1-weighting and increased signal intensity with inversion recovery. There were also signal intensity changes consistent with edema in the surrounding soft tissues. Biopsies showed focal marrow fibrosis and new bone formation with foci of devitalized bone. CONCLUSION: These cases resemble TBME but are unusual in their distribution. Whether they represent a previously undescribed clinical syndrome or a variant of TBME remains to be clarified.
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ranking = 5
keywords = tibia
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4/4. Bone insufficiency fractures as an inaugural manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Primary hyperparathyroidism causes excessive bone resorption with a decrease in bone mineral density. Fractures of the vertebras and appendicular bones, however, seem uncommon, even in the long term. We report three patients who presented with bone insufficiency fractures as the inaugural symptom of primary hyperparathyroidism. The three patients were women, aged 62, 65 and 86 years, respectively, who presented with fractures of the medial tibial plateau, femoral neck of femoral neck and tarsus. Laboratory tests showed hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia and elevated parathyroid hormone levels. Apart from confusion in the 86-year-old patient, there were no clinical manifestations. A bone biopsy obtained in one patient showed increased resorption parameters with no loss of bone trabecular volume; the two other patients underwent absorptiometry, which disclosed a marked decrease in bone mineral density at the spine and femoral neck. There were no risk factors for osteopenia apart from advanced age and female gender. A parathyroid adenoma was removed surgically in all three cases. vitamin d deficiency was a concomitant abnormality that probably exacerbated the adverse effects of hyperparathyroidism on the skeleton.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tibia
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