Cases reported "Osteoporosis"

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1/45. Severe anorexia nervosa associated with osteoporotic-linked femural neck fracture and pulmonary tuberculosis: a case report.

    We report a case study of a 38-year-old woman who had been suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) since the age of 26. Before admittance to our clinic, she weighed 23.8 kg (at a height of 164 cm, 8.8 body mass index [BMI]) but still carried out strenuous physical activities. After good psychotherapeutic response and weight gain (34.4 kg), she accidentally fell and broke her femoral neck-favored as it was by osteoporosis. The X-ray taken before dynamic hip screw implantation coincidentally showed signs of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), which could then be proven by computed tomography (CT) scans and cultures from a bronchoscopy. Other than lack of appetite and loss of weight, which we attributed to AN, there were no other clinical or biochemical indicators which could have pointed to an earlier TB diagnosis. As a result, the need for screening procedures is discussed. The manifestation of TB during the first weight gain after 12 years of severe malnutrition, during which there were no serious infections, seems to endorse former observations that AN patients appear to be "resistant" to some extent against infectious diseases, a "protection" which may be lost with convalescence and weight gain.
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2/45. Transient osteoporosis of the talus.

    Transient osteoporosis is a clinical syndrome of unknown etiology characterized by the acute onset of pain gradually worsening over several weeks to months. Radiographic changes occur, but laboratory studies are generally unremarkable. Transient osteoporosis of the talus appears to have a similar clinical appearance, radiographic findings, and successful response to conservative management as transient osteoporosis found elsewhere in the body and can be treated similarly. awareness of this syndrome is important to avoid confusing it with a variety of other disorders of the talus that may have similar clinical presentations.
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3/45. 2D CSI proton MR spectroscopy of human spinal vertebra: feasibility studies.

    This report focuses on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) of spine vertebra acquired with two-dimensional chemical shift imaging (2D CSI), utilizing the stimulated echo acquisition mode (steam) sequence. Both validity and reproducibility studies were performed. To validate the 2D CSI method, its spectra were compared with those obtained with the single-voxel (SV) method. Five normal volunteers were scanned. The reproducibility of 2D CSI was examined by performing spectroscopy on two different occasions, on three normal volunteers. Data show that the steam 2D CSI technique results in MRI spectra comparable to those obtained with the steam SV method. 2D CSI offers significant time savings and convenient multi-voxel spectral analysis at a substantially higher signal-to-noise ratio. The 2D CSI method was then applied to a patient with a small vertebral hemangioma. The results demonstrated that the voxels containing the hemangioma exhibit different spectra than the neighboring voxels of the same vertebra. Additionally, a case of vertebral osteoporosis was investigated. Results showed a significant increase in the lipid-to-water ratio (LWR). It is suggested that 2D CSI may be powerful in identifying physiological as well as pathological changes of the bone marrow. Furthermore, covering a more extensive area of the vertebral body will maximize the chances of depicting a small focus of pathologic tissue. A more detailed bone marrow pattern was noticed in on one subject whose spectra show more lipid peaks.
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4/45. Posterior spinal shortening for paraplegia after vertebral collapse caused by osteoporosis.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report of a patient who underwent a new surgical procedure for paraplegia after vertebral collapse due to osteoporosis. OBJECTIVES: To propose a new approach to posterior spinal fusion surgery for osteoporotic patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Surgical treatment was performed on a paraplegic patient after vertebral collapse due to osteoporosis. However, the surgery was difficult because implants such as hooks and screws often dislodged during the treatment. The poor holding power of these implants to the osteoporotic spine is a challenging problem in this treatment. methods: When a fractured vertebra is shortened by resecting the posterior part of the spine and the application of a compression force, a short vertebra is produced. As a result, the thoracic kyphosis decreases and the force pushing the upper thoracic spine inferio-ventrally also decreases. RESULTS: A 74-year-old woman with T12 vertebral collapse was treated with this new method. Lateral Cobb angle (T10-L2) was reduced from 26 to 4 degrees after surgery. The shortened vertebral body united, and after 33 months, the implant had not dislodged and no loss of correction was seen. CONCLUSION: The posterior spinal shortening can be a choice for treating delayed paraplegia after osteoporotic vertebral fracture.
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5/45. osteoporosis with vertebral fractures associated with pregnancy and lactation.

    Three cases of young women who developed severe vertebral osteoporosis after pregnancy and during lactation are described. These patients shared several features: a low-calcium diet during most of their lives, very-low body weight in two patients, and a positive family history of osteoporosis in two patients. Initial studies disclosed vertebral fractures, severely diminished bone mineral density of the spine (Z score = -3.3 to -4.1), and a less severely affected bone mineral density of the hip (Z score = -1.6 to -2.3). During the prolonged follow-up of these patients, treated with oral biphosphonates, vitamin d, and calcium, an improved clinical response with a marked recovery of spine bone mineral density was observed. Poor general nutrition, low calcium intake, and a positive family history of osteoporosis appear to be strong risk factors for pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis. Although the mechanism of action is uncertain, calcium, vitamin d, and antiresorptive agents may have been beneficial in the treatment of this severe disorder.
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6/45. Rapid increase in bone mineral density in a child with osteoporosis and autoimmune hypoparathyroidism treated with PTH 1-34.

    We describe a 16-year-old girl with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 including hypoparathyroidism, who had osteoporosis that improved rapidly with parathyroid hormone replacement therapy. patients with hypoparathyroidism usually have high bone mass. Our patient developed vertebral compression fractures at age 10, shortly after hypoparathyroidism was diagnosed. She continued to have low lumbar bone mass until age 16, when a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) revealed a Z score of - 2.2 SD. Several factors including decreased physical activity, total body magnesium depletion, and intermittent ketoconazole and short-term prednisone treatment, may have contributed to the development and progression of osteoporosis. Therapy with synthetic human parathyroid hormone (PTH) 1-34 rapidly normalized lumbar bone mass, as assessed by DEXA.
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7/45. Endocrine aspects of eating disorders in adolescents.

    eating disorders are an important health concern among adolescents. Young women frequently present with signs and symptoms of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. These disorders represent clinically significant illnesses with serious and sometimes permanent medical complications, including a number of endocrine conditions, that, in general, result from the body s adaptive response to malnutrition. Examples include disorders of metabolism, cortisol and leptin regulation, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, thyroid function, glucose regulation, growth and development, and reproductive function with the development of amenorrhea as well as the risk of osteoporosis.
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8/45. Vertebral body compression fracture after removal of pedicle screws: a report of two cases.

    While the risks of pedicle screw insertion are well established, there is a paucity of reports on complications associated with implant removal. We report two cases of acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures of the instrumented vertebral body adjacent to the fractured vertebra due to removal of pedicle screws in two female patients previously treated for vertebral lumbar burst fractures. Both patients had experienced only mild occasional pain at the thoracolumbar junction prior to the removal of the implants. In the formerly almost asymptomatic individuals, the acute osteoporotic fractures led to persistent severe back pain despite prolonged intensive treatment. patients must be thoroughly informed of the rare but potential risks of spinal implant removal, particularly in cases of osteoporosis. We therefore do not recommend removal of spinal implants unless there are clear clinical indications for implant removal.
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9/45. Percutaneous transpedicular vertebroplasty with calcium phosphate cement in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression and burst fractures.

    OBJECT: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures occasionally lead to late-onset collapse, kyphosis, persistent back pain, and disability. The authors describe a series of patients in whom they performed percutaneous vertebroplasty by using calcium phosphate cement (CPC) to obtain early pain relief and improve the integrity of the osteoporotic vertebral body (VB). methods: Between August 2000 and February 2001, they performed 17 percutaneous transpedicular CPC-assisted vertebroplasty procedures in 16 patients who harbored thoracic or lumbar osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Following repositioning and curettage of the pathological soft tissues, CPC-assisted vertebroplasty was percutaneously performed in four patients with osteoporotic burst fracture and pseudarthrosis (Procedure A). In situ CPC-assisted vertebroplasty was performed in 12 patients with fresh vertebral compression fractures due to osteoporosis (Procedure B). back pain and low-back pain were evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS). The deformity index of the VB was measured on a lateral radiograph as the ratio of the VB's height (sum of measurements at anterior, middle, and posterior regions) to its longitudinal diameter. Based on VAS scores, pain was decreased in all patients immediately after surgery, and pain relief was maintained at the last follow up. The mean preoperative deformity index score of the VB was 1.43 in Procedure A and 1.67 in Procedure B; postoperatively scores improved to 1.59 and 1.93, respectively. At the 6-month follow-up examination, the mean deformity index score rebounded to 1.52 in Procedure A and 1.79 in Procedure B. Bone union was documented in all patients. Complications, such as a temporary respiratory insufficiency and a small amount of CPC leakage into the spinal canal, were observed in patients who underwent Procedure B. CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous transpedicular CPC-assisted vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure that provides early relief of pain and prevents vertebral collapse and pseudarthrosis in patients with osteoporotic vertebral fracture.
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10/45. Bone loss and recovery in regional migratory osteoporosis.

    Regional migratory osteoporosis (RMO) is a migrating arthralgia of the weight-bearing joints of the lower limb associated with focal osteoporosis. Little information is available on a quantitative assessment of systemic or local osteoporosis. In this study, we report three cases of RMO in which spine, hip and whole body serial assessments of bone mass have been evaluated to outline their extent and time course of changes. Systemic osteoporosis, with a prevalent involvement of the mainly trabecular skeletal sites, was present in all the patients, with T-scores below -2.5 at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Bone loss in acute episodes ranged from -75.5% to -14.7% and appeared related to the severity of the episode. In acute episodes the demineralizing process affected the whole limb from the hemipelvis to the foot: the bone loss ranged from -33.6% to -3.5% at sites with prevalent trabecular composition and from -19.1% to -1.1% at sites with prevalent cortical composition. Bone recovery was complete in one episode out of six. In the other five cases, the average residual bone loss was 26% (range 13.9-32.7%). Our observations suggest that RMO occurs in subjects with systemic osteoporosis and densitometric assessment may aid in the clinical management.
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