Cases reported "Osteoporosis"

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11/45. cadmium exposure and nephropathy in a 28-year-old female metals worker.

    A 28-year-old female presented for evaluation of left flank pain and polyuria after having been exposed to cadmium in the jewelry manufacturing industry for approximately 3 years. This patient possessed both elevated 24-hr urinary ss2-microglobulin and elevated blood cadmium levels. Approximately 6 months after initial presentation, the patient resigned from her job due to shortness of breath, chest pain, and anxiety. Exposure to cadmium in the jewelry industry is a significant source of occupational cadmium exposure. Other occupational sources include the manufacture of nickel-cadmium batteries, metal plating, zinc and lead refining, smelting of cadmium and lead, and production of plastics. cadmium is also an environmental pollutant that accumulates in leafy vegetables and plants, including tobacco. Major toxicities anticipated from cadmium exposure involve the renal, pulmonary, and, to a lesser extent, gastrointestinal systems. These include the development of renal proximal tubular dysfunction, glomerular damage with progressive renal disease, and respiratory symptoms including pneumonitis and emphysema. Low-level cadmium exposure has also been associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and direct bone toxicity, effects that recent research suggests may result in the development of osteoporosis. The body burden of cadmium, over half of which may reside in the kidneys, is most often measured through the use of urinary cadmium levels. Blood cadmium measurements generally reflect current or recent exposure and are especially useful in cases with a short exposure period and only minimal accumulation of cadmium in the kidneys. Both ss2-microglobulin and alpha1-microglobulin serve as organ-specific, early-effect biomarkers of tubular proteinuria and thus play a role in identifying early signs of cadmium-induced renal damage in those with potential exposures. In addition to ensuring workplace compliance with Occupational safety and health Administration-mandated monitoring and screening measures, it is prudent for those with cadmium exposure to maintain adequate intake of both iron and calcium, appropriate measures even in the absence of exposure.
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12/45. Treatment of lower lumbar radiculopathy caused by osteoporotic compression fracture: the role of vertebroplasty.

    The authors used vertebroplasty for the treatment of severe lower lumbar radicular pain caused by osteoporotic compression fracture. Patients presented with severe radiating leg pain rather than lower back pain from recent osteoporotic compression fracture of lower lumbar vertebra. Radiologic findings showed osteoporotic compression fracture combined with preexisting stenosis of the intervertebral foramen resulting in root compression. After injection of polymethylmethacrylate into the compressed vertebral body through the pedicle of the symptomatic side, all seven patients experienced dramatic pain relief that lasted throughout the mean follow-up duration of 9.1 months. They conclude that vertebroplasty may be an effective way of relieving radicular pain caused by osteoporotic compression fracture combined with foraminal stenosis.
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13/45. Surgical removal of epidural and intradural polymethylmethacrylate extravasation complicating percutaneous vertebroplasty for an osteoporotic lumbar compression fracture. Case report.

    The authors report the case of patient with a lumbar vertebral body osteoporotic compression fracture who underwent percutaneous transpedicular polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-assisted vertebroplasty in whom extravasation of the cement into the spinal canal caused immediate neurological deterioration. Lateral lumbar radiography and computerized tomography scanning demonstrated the presence of intraspinal PMMA. The patient suffered severe low-back pain, left-sided sciatica, and profound left L2-4 distribution weakness and numbness. She underwent immediate L-2 laminectomy, the extra- and intradural PMMA was removed, and instrumentation-assisted lateral mass fusion was performed. The patient recovered without incident and her neurological deficit improved. Extravasation of cement into the spinal canal, neural foramen, paraspinal veins, or disc space has been reported in 11 to 73% of percutaneous transpedicular PMMA-assisted vertebroplasty procedures. It is disturbing that more than one group of authors has documented symptomatic spinal canal PMMA extravasation and that the patients were left severely handicapped because of a stated fear that surgery to remove the cement would be difficult and make them worse. The results achieved in this case refute that published notion. It is important to document that decompressive surgery and PMMA removal from the spinal canal are easy and can lead to immediate neurological improvement. With the increasing popularity of percutaneous transpedicular PMMA-assisted vertebroplasty, the authors suspect that more of these cases will be seen.
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14/45. Discrepant areal and volumetric bone density measurements in a young woman with idiopathic low bone mineral density.

    OBJECTIVE: To discuss a case of idiopathic low bone density in a young woman. methods: We present a detailed report that includes clinical, laboratory, and radiologic assessment of a pre-menopausal woman with idiopathic low bone mass. RESULTS: A 34-year-old healthy woman of small body habitus was found by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to have bone mineral density (BMD) that was less than 2.5 standard deviations below the young and age-matched norm. After a thorough evaluation, no cause of osteoporosis was identified. Calculation of bone mineral apparent density, which minimizes the effect of small skeletal size on areal BMD, resulted in only a modest improvement in T-scores. Measurement of lumbar spine volumetric BMD by quantitative computed tomography, however, revealed a significantly improved T-score of -1.6. CONCLUSION: This report highlights the complexities of low BMD measurements in otherwise healthy young women as well as the potential application of bone mineral apparent density and quantitative computed tomography in the evaluation of low BMD in young women with small skeletal frames.
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15/45. Pathogenesis and diagnosis of delayed vertebral collapse resulting from osteoporotic spinal fracture.

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In recent years there have been an increasing number of reports on surgical cases involving delayed neurological deficits caused by vertebral collapse after osteoporotic vertebral fracture. PURPOSE: We do not yet know which patients are most susceptible to delayed vertebral collapse and subsequent neurological deficits, or whether this pathological condition can be prevented or predicted. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of progression and radiographic features characteristic of this disease, and we report here the predictive or risk factors for delayed osteoporotic vertebral collapse. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospectively, we investigated the pathogenesis and diagnosis of delayed vertebral collapse with neurological deficit resulting from osteoporosis. PATIENT SAMPLE: A total of 28 patients (7 men and 21 women) with neurological deficits resulting from vertebral collapse caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures were the subjects for this study. OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparisons and investigations about clinical features and radiographic findings between the patient group of delayed vertebral collapse with neurological deficits and the group of osteoporotic spinal fracture with no neurological deficits. methods: The following factors were examined: the cause of injury; the length of time from injury, or the onset of pain, to the onset of neurological symptoms; radiographic findings obtained during the above period; the clinical course of vertebral fracture on plain X-ray films; time of appearance of the intravertebral cleft, and its localization and changes. RESULTS: Six patients were hospitalized and prescribed a period of 2 weeks of bed rest followed by the fitting of a corset; seven outpatients were corseted but not prescribed bed rest; 15 patients were given medication only at an outpatient clinic. At radiography, intravertebral clefts were detected in 22 patients (79%) during the period from the appearance of pain to the onset of neurological deficit. In 14 patients (50%) who were radiographed every 1 to 2 weeks from the injury to the onset of neurological symptoms, the course of progression to collapse of the vertebral body could be observed. CONCLUSION: Initial correct diagnosis and immobilization are important in preventing the delayed collapse with neurological deficit. The presence of an intravertebral cleft and instability of the affected vertebra represent risk factors for vertebral collapse with neurological deficit, requiring careful observation.
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16/45. Annual changes of bone density over 12 years in an amenorrheic athlete.

    PURPOSE: To link annual changes of bone mineral density (BMD) over 12 consecutive years to pharmacological intervention and to fluctuations of body mass and body composition in an amenorrheic athlete. methods: BMD of the lumbar spine (LS) and total proximal femur (PF) were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), every 11-13 months between ages 24.8 and 36.9 yr. body composition was assessed every 3-4 yr from a whole body DXA scan. Body mass was recorded every 3 months. For the first 5 yr of study, the subject used oral contraceptives (OC). For the subsequent 7 yr, she used estradiol skin patches (EP) with oral norethisterone. RESULTS: The first DXA scan (age 24.8 yr) revealed a low BMD at both LS and PF, with T-scores of -1.4 and -2.8, respectively. During the next 5 yr, while adhering to OC, the BMD of her LS and PF declined by 9.8% and 12.1%, respectively. Concomitantly, her body mass fell from 45.1 to 41.4 kg, her body mass index (BMI) from 16.4 to 15.0 kg.m-2, and her percent body fat from 8.3 to <4.0%. While treated with EP and norethisterone (age 29.8-33.5 yr), her LS BMD gradually increased by 9.4%, despite a further 0.8 kg decline of body mass. From age 33.8 to 36.9 yr, voluntary weight gain (2-3 kg.yr-1; total: 8.1 kg) was accompanied by an increase of her PF BMD (16.9%), with no further increase at the LS. CONCLUSION: Changes of BMD at the total proximal femur reflected changes of body mass in this subject. At the lumbar spine, BMD declined with weight loss but increased in association with transdermal estradiol treatment in the absence of weight gain.
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17/45. Familial hypothalamic digoxin deficiency syndrome.

    The case report of a family with coexistence of hypotension, recurrent respiratory infection, motor tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), major depressive disorder, early onset osteoporosis, low body mass index, bulimia nervosa, and healthy aging with longevity is described. The family members had hyposexual behavior and less tendency toward spirituality. They did not have insomnia, but they did display tendency toward increased somnolence. No addictive behavior was observed. The family demonstrated a high level of bonding and affectionate behavior, and they were less creative, with an average intelligence quotient (IQ). There was a total absence of vascular thrombosis, systemic neoplasms and neuronal degeneration in the indexed family. All members of the indexed family were left hemispheric dominant. The levels of serum digoxin, HMG-CoA reductase activity, and dolichol were found to be decreased in the members of the indexed family, with a corresponding increase in red blood cell (RBC) Na( )-K ATPase activity, serum ubiquinone and magnesium levels. There was increase in tyrosine catabolites and a reduction in tryptophan catabolites in the serum. The total and individual glycosaminoglycan fractions, carbohydrate residues of glycoproteins, activity of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) degrading enzymes, and glycohydrolases were decreased in the serum. The concentration of RBC membrane total GAG and carbohydrate residues of glycoproteins increased, while the cholesterol: phospholipid ratio of the membrane decreased. The activity of free radical scavenging enzymes were increased, while the concentration of free radicals decreased significantly. The same biochemical patterns were observed in left hemispheric dominance as opposed to right hemispheric dominance. The significance of these findings in the pathogenesis of these disorders is discussed.
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18/45. Severe hypercapnia due to pulmonary embolism of polymethylmethacrylate during vertebroplasty.

    Pulmonary polymethylmethacrylate embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of percutaneous vertebroplasty. Clinical signs are typical for pulmonary embolism: they include respiratory distress, hypotension, and decreases in end-tidal CO(2). We report a case of fatal pulmonary polymethylmethacrylate embolism during percutaneous vertebroplasty that initially presented with hypertension (arterial blood pressure 190/90 mm Hg), normocardia, and hypercapnia (PaCO(2) 96 mm Hg), along with loss of consciousness. Several pieces of polymethylmethacrylate were found in the pulmonary vasculature at autopsy. IMPLICATIONS: Osteoporotic spine fractures are increasingly treated by injection of bone cement into the vertebral body. Polymethylmethacrylate embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication. We report on a case of polymethylmethacrylate embolism that was at first unrecognized because of uncharacteristic signs and symptoms.
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19/45. Vertebral reconstruction with biodegradable calcium phosphate cement in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture using instrumentation.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of posterior instrumentation and vertebral reconstruction with biodegradable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture with neurologic deficit. BACKGROUND: vertebroplasty consists of the injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement into the vertebral body. While PMMA has high mechanical strength, it cures fast and thus allows only a short handling time. Other potential problems of using PMMA injection may include damage to surrounding tissues due to the high polymerization temperature or by the toxic unreacted monomer and the lack of long-term biocompatibility. Bone mineral cements such as calcium carbonate and CPCs have a longer working time and low thermal effect. They are also biodegradable while providing good mechanical strength. However, the viscosity of injectable mineral cements is high, and the infiltration of these cements into the vertebral body has been questioned. Recently, the infiltration properties of CPC have been significantly improved, making it more suitable for injection into the vertebral bodies for vertebral reconstruction. methods: Five patients were included in this open prospective study. Inclusion criteria were delayed collapsed vertebral compression fractures responsible for severe pain and neurologic dysfunction necessitating posterior decompression surgery. Of five patients, two were male and three were female with an average age at surgery of 80.4 years (71-85 years) and an average duration of follow-up of 2.5 years (2-3.5 years). Evaluation of clinical data was based on x-ray, Japanese Orthopaedic association (JOA) score for low back pain (full score is 29 points), and visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: The levels of the delayed collapsed vertebrae were T10, L1, and L2 (for one patient each) and L4 (two patients). All patients were in poor condition, for example, renal failure, heart failure, and chronic hepatitis. The average operative time was 2 hours (1 hour 36 minutes to 2 hours 16 minutes), and intraoperative bleeding was 181 mL (85-236 mL). As for clinical symptoms, preoperative JOA score averaged 17.8 points and was improved to 26 points postoperatively, while the preoperative VAS score of 8.6 points improved to 2 points postoperatively. Morphologic evaluation showed preoperative vertebral compression ratio averaged 41% and improved to 74% immediately after the operation and finally settled at 68%. Just one of five cases experienced late vertebral collapse 3 months after the operation. CONCLUSION: Vertebral reconstruction with biodegradable CPC in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture using instrumentation was a safe and useful surgical treatment.
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20/45. Response of fractured osteoporotic bone to polymethylacrylate after vertebroplasty: case report.

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is the most commonly used bone cement for vertebroplasties to treat osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). Several studies have described the reaction of normal bone to PMMA, but it is still unclear how fractured osteoporotic bone responds to PMMA. PURPOSE: To describe the response of fractured osteoporotic bone to PMMA after vertebroplasty. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Case report. methods: A 69-year-old woman with a previous vertebroplasty at T8 to treat an osteoporotic VCF was admitted to the hospital after she developed lower extremity motor weakness, diffuse hypoesthesia and decreased rectal tone. magnetic resonance imaging studies of the thoracic spine showed that she had severe spinal cord compression at the level of T8 and T9, as well as akyphotic deformity. A corpectomy of T8 and T9 was performed as part of a spinal cord decompression procedure. Tissue from vertebral body T8, intervertebral discs T7-T8 and T8-T9 and the PMMA implant were then submitted for histologic evaluation.RESULTS: Vertebral body T8 demonstrated viable bone trabeculae, osteoid. fibrosis, granulation tissue and multinucleated giant cells containing PMMA. Scattered necrotic bone fragments were identified throughout the vertebral body, most evident near the PMMA. PMMA leakage into the T7-T8 disc was identified without significant disc inflammation or necrosis. CONCLUSION: Fractured osteoporotic bone is capable of undergoing a reparative healing response after vertebroplasty using PMMA.
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