Cases reported "Osteoradionecrosis"

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21/34. Tension pneumocephalus--a rare complication of radiotherapy: a case report.

    We present a rare case of tension pneumocephalus due to high-dose radiotherapy used to treat nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A skull base defect causing tension pneumocephalus was identified and was repaired successfully. The case emphasizes the importance of careful consideration before applying irradiation treatment to patients with head and neck malignancy and urges early detection of potentially life-threatening complications.
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22/34. CSF otorrhea complicating osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone.

    osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone is a well-recognized complication of radiotherapy for head and neck malignancy. There are two mechanisms by which this condition can produce damage to nearby structures and even result in death. osteoradionecrosis may (1) predispose the patient to an aggressive or chronic infectious process, or (2) cause destruction of tissue by direct necrosis. A review of the literature failed to disclose a cause of CSF otorrhea complicating osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone. This paper describes a case of skull base osteoradionecrosis, including necrosis of the tympanic membrane, associated with CSF otorrhea. Successful control of this complication was achieved using a translabyrinthine approach to locate the fistula, which originated from the internal auditory canal and was discharging through the middle ear via the oval window. The leak was sealed, the resultant mastoid cavity was obliterated by rotation of a temporalis muscle flap, and the external auditory canal was closed by the Fisch technique.
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23/34. radiation injury to the temporal bone.

    osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone is an unusual sequela of radiation therapy to the head and neck. Symptoms occur many years after the radiation is administered, and progression of the disease is insidious. hearing loss (sensorineural, conductive, or mixed), otalgia, otorrhea, and even gross tissue extrusion herald this condition. Later, intracranial complications such as meningitis, temporal lobe or cerebellar abscess, and cranial neuropathies may occur. Reported here are five cases of this rare malady representing varying degrees of the disease process. They include a case of radiation-induced necrosis of the tympanic ring with persistent squamous debris in the external auditory canal and middle ear. Another case demonstrates the progression of radiation otitis media to mastoiditis with bony sequestration. Further progression of the disease process is seen in a third case that evolved into multiple cranial neuropathies from skull base destruction. Treatment includes systemic antibiotics, local wound care, and debridement in cases of localized tissue involvement. More extensive debridement with removal of sequestrations, abscess drainage, reconstruction with vascularized tissue from regional flaps, and mastoid obliteration may be warranted for severe cases. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has provided limited benefit.
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24/34. Complications of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of head and neck disease.

    Hyperbaric oxygen has been advocated in the treatment of many head and neck diseases. Reports of such treatments have described eustachian tube dysfunction as the only complication. A review of patients receiving hyperbaric oxygen for head and neck diseases at The Mount Sinai Medical Center revealed serious complications, which included seizure, stroke, and myocardial infarction. In addition, follow-up study of these patients demonstrated that 11 patients treated for radiation-induced necrosis had an undiagnosed recurrence of cancer.
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25/34. osteoradionecrosis of the head and neck: a case of a clavicular-tracheal fistula secondary to osteoradionecrosis of the sternoclavicular joint.

    radiation therapy is an integral part of treatment for head and neck cancer, but its use is not without complications. We describe the first reported sternoclavicular-tracheal fistula resulting from osteoradionecrosis (ORN) at the medial clavicle. This ORN resulted from definitive radiation therapy for a primary pyriform sinus squamous cell carcinoma. The diagnosis of ORN was made by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. The physiologic damage of ORN is based on a compromised blood supply and altered metabolism of bone formation secondary to effects of ionizing radiation. Treatment requires meticulous hygiene, antibiotics, and debridement as conservative therapy. Radical surgery and reconstruction may be indicated in refractory cases. A thorough preirradiation assessment of patients is mandatory to decrease the incidence of radiation-induced ORN.
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26/34. mandibular reconstruction in irradiated patients utilizing myosseous-cutaneous flaps.

    Myosseous-cutaneous flaps were used for mandibular reconstruction in 16 irradiated patients. Three of six sternomastoid-clavicle flaps failed (all in conjunction with a neck dissection), as did one of 10 pectoralis major-anterior-fifth rib flaps. One trapezius-scapular flap was used and it succeeded. We found the blood supply of the sternomastoid-clavicle flap too tenuous for use in conjunction with a neck dissection. The trapezius-scapular flap had too short an arc of rotation to be used for defects other than those in the horizontal ramus. In addition, this flap required a change of position and created an undesirable functional deformity. The pectoralis major-fifth rib flap, in contrast, could be used for a variety of defects, in conjunction with a neck dissection, and did not require a change of position during operation. We found it to be the most versatile and dependable of the flaps employed in this series.
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27/34. Hyperbaric oxygen. A new adjunct in the management of radiation necrosis.

    radiation necrosis is a significant complication of surgery for previously irradiated head and neck malignant neoplasms. We used hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) as adjunctive therapy in 52 cases of radiation necrosis. Thirty-nine cases involved the head and neck. Nineteen of 23 cases of osteoradionecrosis of the mandible remain arrested after as much as two years of follow-up. Fifteen of the 16 cases of soft-tissue radionecrosis of the head and neck were successfully managed with HBO therapy as an adjunct to surgery and antibiotics. Fibroblastic proliferation, collagen formation, and capillary budding require at least 20 to 30 mm Hg of wound Po2. This effect can be achieved in wounds that are rendered hypoxic by radiation endarteritis and ischemia with high-dose or hyperbaric oxygenation.
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28/34. Reconstruction of lower third of face with three simultaneous free flaps.

    A case of massive osteoradionecrosis is presented that required angle-to-angle resection of the mandible and replacement of skin of the chin and neck as well as the entire floor of the mouth. In this heavily irradiated patient, three microvascular free flaps were transferred in one operation. A large radial forearm flap was used to reconstruct the floor of the mouth. A second large radial forearm flap was used to reconstruct the chin and neck defects and a fibular osseous flap was used to reconstruct the mandible. All wounds healed primarily. For extremely complicated and large defects, the transfer of multiple free flaps may provide the best reconstruction.
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29/34. Detection of cancer recurrence in irradiated mandible using positron emission tomography.

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a promising method for pretherapeutic assessment of spread of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in the head and neck. A 41-year-old man with a history of operated and irradiated SCC of the tongue presented 4 years later with symptoms and signs of mandibular osteoradionecrosis. No changes related to malignancy could be seen in panoramic radiographs or computed tomography scanning with contrast enhancement. Since a biopsy of the involved region was positive for SCC, a PET study with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was performed. In dynamic PET images, intensive uptake of FDG was seen in a small area close to the right mental foramen. A hemimandibulectomy with reconstruction using a free vascularized graft from iliac crest was performed. In the resected specimen, histological examination showed a 1.2-mm focus of SCC in the soft tissue and bone around the mental foramen. These findings indicate that FDG-PET might be useful for presurgical evaluation of cancer recurrence in a previously irradiated mandible, especially if PET can accurately differentiate viable tumor tissue from radiation-induced fibrosis and inflammation.
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30/34. osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone: treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    radiation necrosis is a major complication of surgery or trauma in a previously irradiated field. Although it may occur in any location, the most common region affected is the head and neck. osteoradionecrosis (ORN), the involvement of bone with radiation necrosis, occurs most frequently in the mandible, and has been well described. Involvement of the temporal bone, although less frequent, is nonetheless a difficult problem in management. Described herein is a case of ORN of the temporal bone treated with adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy with complete resolution. This is followed by a discussion of the pathophysiology, presentation, and management of osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone, including the role of adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment regimen.
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