Cases reported "Osteoradionecrosis"

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1/21. Decisive diagnosis of infected mandibular osteoradionecrosis with a Tc-99m-labelled anti-granulocyte Fab'-fragment.

    The accepted golden standard for detection of inflammatory bone disease is conventional three-phase bone scanning. Hyperperfusion, a high blood-pool activity and elevated bone metabolism are typical signs for an acute osteomyelitis. However, in case of subacute, chronic inflammation, neither elevated blood flow nor high blood-pool activity may be seen. This may cause difficulties in differentiating such cases from neoplastic or postoperative changes. This case report verifies the possible advantage of immunoscintigraphy with Tc-99m-labelled anti-granulocyte Fab'-fragments (LeukoScan) in a patient with infected mandibular osteoradionecrosis, who had equivocal clinical symptoms and questionable radiographic results. LeukoScan is shown to be more sensitive in case of subacute bone inflammation compared with three-phase bone scanning. However, acquisition of delayed images after 24 hours including SPECT is inevitable in case of negative scans during the first hours of investigation.
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2/21. Possibilities of preventing osteoradionecrosis during complex therapy of tumors of the oral cavity.

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of tumors of the head and neck. Their successful treatment is one of the greatest challenges for physicians dealing with oncotherapy. An organic part of the complex therapy is preoperative or postoperative irradiation. Application of this is accompanied by a lower risk of recurrences, and by a higher proportion of cured patients. Unfortunately, irradiation also has a disadvantage: the development of osteoradionecrosis, a special form of osteomyelitis, in some patients (mainly in those cases where irradiation occurs after bone resection or after partial removal of the periosteum). Once the clinical picture of this irradiation complication has developed, its treatment is very difficult. A significant result or complete freedom from complaints can be attained only rarely. attention must therefore be focussed primarily on prevention, and the oral surgeon, the oncoradiologist and the patient too can all do much to help prevent the occurrence of osteoradionecrosis. Through coupling of an up-to-date, functional surgical attitude with knowledge relating to modern radiology and radiation physics, the way may be opened to forestall this complication that is so difficult to cure.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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3/21. Treatment of necrotic infection on the anterior chest wall secondary to mastectomy and postoperative radiotherapy by the application of omentum and mesh skin grafting: report of a case.

    We report herein the case of a patient who initially underwent right radical mastectomy for breast carcinoma in 1988, followed by left breast-conserving surgery in 1997. On both occasions she was given postoperative radiation therapy of 50 Gy. Repeated dressings and the administration of antibiotics failed to heal ulcerative infected lesions that had formed on the anterior chest wall in early 1998. In 1999, the sternum and surrounding tissue were debrided and the anterior chest wall was reconstructed by omentum transposition and mesh skin grafting. The patient is currently well and alive without any evidence of recurrence of either infection or breast cancer.
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ranking = 5
keywords = operative
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4/21. osteoradionecrosis of the mandible after oromandibular cancer surgery.

    Although postoperative radiotherapy has proved effective in improving local control and survival in patients with head and neck cancers, its complications, especially mandibular osteoradionecrosis, reduce the quality of life. Mandibular surgery before the radiotherapy adds an additional risk factor for osteoradionecrosis. This study reviews patients in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, taiwan, over a 10-year period, who underwent intraoral cancer resection followed by postoperative radiotherapy and thereafter developed osteoradionecrosis of the mandible. A total of 24 men and three women with a mean age of 49.9 years were identified and included in the study. In 10 cases, tumor resection was performed with a marginal mandibulectomy; in eight cases, tumor resection was performed after mandibular osteotomy; and in three cases, a segmental mandibulectomy was performed, and the defect was reconstructed with a fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap. In six cases, tumor excisions were performed without interfering with the mandibular continuity. patients received postoperative external beam radiotherapy into the primary site and the neck, with a mean dose ( /-SD) of 5900 /- 1300 cGy in an average of 35 fractions during an average of 6.5 weeks. The average elapsed time between the end of radiation therapy and clinical diagnosis of osteoradionecrosis of the mandible was 11.2 months (range, 2 to 36 months). The time elapse between the end of the radiation therapy and the diagnosis of osteoradionecrosis was influenced by initial treatment (Kruskal-Wallis test: n = 27, chi-square = 12.884, p < 0.005), and this period was shorter if the mandibular osteotomy or marginal mandibulectomy was performed (the two lowest mean ranks in the test). However, if the initial surgery resulted in a segmental mandibulectomy reconstructed with a fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap, onset of the osteoradionecrosis was relatively late (Kruskal-Wallis test: n = 21, chi-square = 7.731, p = 0.052). After resection of osteoradionecrotic bone and surrounding soft tissue, 22 patients underwent reconstructive procedures with a fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap, and five patients underwent reconstructive procedures with an inferior genicular artery osteoperiosteal cutaneous flap. One fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap showed total failure and another showed a 25 percent skin loss; both were revised with pedicled flaps. The skin paddle of an inferior genicular artery flap was replaced with an anterolateral thigh flap because of anatomic variation of the skin vessel. Once the diagnosis of osteoradionecrosis is established, replacement of the dead bone and surrounding tissue with a vascularized free bone flap is inevitable, and a composite osteocutaneous free flap is a good option.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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5/21. Cystic brain necrosis and temporal bone osteoradionecrosis after radiotherapy and surgery in a patient of ear carcinoma.

    brain cyst formation of temporal lobe induced by radionecrosis in ear carcinoma is rare. A 73-year-old man with basosquamous carcinoma of the left external ear canal received excision of tumor and postoperative radiation therapy in 1992. For osteonecrosis of the left temporal bone, a series treatment including oral and intravenous antibiotics and hyperbaric oxygen therapy was given in following years. Encephalomalasia of the left temporal lobe on brain computed tomography (CT) was noted in 1997. The patient suffered from headache, poor concentration, memory impairment, depressed mood, bad temper, and one 8 x 5 x 3.5 cm cystic lesion of the left temporal lobe with tempomandibular joint defect revealed by brain CT in 2001. Symptoms relieved after stereotactic aspiration of cystic fluid and external drainage (Omaya reservoir) insertion under magnetic resonance image by neurosurgeon. We report the progressive radionecrosis of temporal lobe and cyst formation, which caused the neuropsychological symptoms 10 years after radiotherapy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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6/21. Callusmassage. A new treatment modality for non-unions of the irradiated mandible.

    Recent reports on orthopaedic surgery focus on mechanical stimulation of the regenerate during distraction therapy of non-unions in long-bone-surgery. In the field of maxillofacial surgery, callus stimulating techniques are rarely reported. The case of a 65-year-old man with a radiogenic mandibular non-union after ablative tumour therapy and pre-operative radiation therapy presented with a non-union. Vertical distraction in combination with subsequent repeated, stepwise compression and distraction (=massage) had a positive effect on the consolidation of the regenerate.
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7/21. Hyperbaric oxygen and Mohs micrographic surgery in the treatment of osteoradionecrosis and recurrent cutaneous carcinoma.

    Recurrent basal cell carcinoma (BCC) overlying bony structures which has been treated with radiation may be complicated by tumor invasion of bone and osteoradionecrosis. The authors present a case of recurrent BCC in which Mohs micrographic surgery and reconstructive surgery were augmented with pre- and post-operative hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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8/21. osteoradionecrosis of the cervical spine resulting from radiotherapy for primary head and neck malignancies: operative and nonoperative management. Case report.

    osteoradionecrosis is a process of dysvascular bone necrosis and fibrous replacement following exposure to high doses of radiation. The poorly vascularized necrotic tissue may cause pain and/or instability, and it cannot resist infection well, which may result in secondary osteomyelitis. When these processes affect the cervical spine, the resulting instability and neurological deficits can be devastating, and immediate reestablishment of spinal stability is paramount. Reconstruction of the cervical spine can be particularly challenging in this subgroup of patients in whom the spine is poorly vascularized after radical surgery, high-dose irradiation, and infection. The authors report three cases of cervical spine osteoradionecrosis following radiotherapy for primary head and neck malignancies. Two patients suffered secondary osteomyelitis, severe spinal deformity, and spinal cord compression. These patients underwent surgery in which a vascularized fibular graft and instrumentation were used to reconstruct the cervical spine; subsequently hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy was instituted. Fusion occurred, spinal stability was restored, and neurological dysfunction resolved at the 2- and 4-year follow-up examinations, respectively. The third patient experienced pain and dysphagia but did not have osteomyelitis, spinal instability, or neurological deficits. He underwent HBO therapy alone, with improved symptoms and imaging findings. Hyperbaric oxygen is an essential part of treatment for osteoradionecrosis and may be sufficient by itself for uncomplicated cases, but surgery is required for patients with spinal instability, spinal cord compression, and/or infection. A vascularized fibular bone graft is a very helpful adjunct in these patients because it adds little morbidity and may increase the rate of spinal fusion.
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ranking = 8
keywords = operative
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9/21. In vivo tetracycline labeling of bone: an intraoperative aid in the surgical therapy of osteoradionecrosis of the mandible.

    In this technical approach, we demonstrate that preoperative tetracycline administration helps distinguish between viable and necrotic bone in osteoradionecrosis (ORN) during surgery by exciting tetracycline fluorescence by black light. The difficult aspect of the operative approach lies in the decision of the extent of the debridement in order to prevent an iatrogenic fracture or progression of ORN. With this technique, vital bone, in contrast to necrotic bone, showed detectable fluorescence. Therefore, tetracycline fluorescence labeling may be used in attempts to facilitate the intraoperative decision making in the surgical therapy of osteoradionecrosis.
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ranking = 7
keywords = operative
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10/21. Treatment of osteoradionecrosis by transoral hemimandibulectomy: report of case.

    A case of progressive osteoradionecrosis after cobalt-60 radiation has been presented. A rational, but aggressive, treatment has been described. The morbidity of the procedure is minimal when proper instrumentation is available. The postoperative results are esthetically pleasing because, with radiation, there is so much fibrosis that facial contour is satisfactory even after a hemimandibulectomy.
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ranking = 1
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