Cases reported "Osteoradionecrosis"

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1/34. A simple reconstructive procedure for radiation-induced necrosis of the external auditory canal.

    Localized necrosis of the bone, cartilage, and soft tissue of the external auditory canal is an uncommon side effect of radiotherapy to the parotid region. Five patients developed late onset skin necrosis of a quadrant of the ear canal secondary to an underlying osteoradionecrosis of the tympanic ring. We report a one-stage procedure to excise the necrotic tissue and replace it with a local rotational flap derived from the post-auricular skin. Otological side effects of radiotherapy are discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = radiation-induced
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2/34. osteoradionecrosis of the cervical vertebrae and occipital bone: a case report and brief review of the literature.

    osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a common complication of radiation therapy. We present the first case reported in the literature of ORN involving the first and second cervical vertebrae and occipital bone in a patient who was treated with surgery and radiation therapy 9 years prior for a TxN3M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the left neck arising from an unknown primary origin. A brief review of the pathophysiology and treatment of this pathological process is also presented. Although the mandible is the most commonly affected site in the head and neck, ORN may develop in an unusual location without any preceding trauma and display an insidious but rapidly progressive course. The pathophysiology of ORN is believed to be a complex metabolic and homeostatic deficiency created by radiation-induced cellular injury and fibrosis, which is characterized by the formation of hypoxic, hypovascular, and hypocellular tissue. The irradiated bone loses its capability to increase the metabolic requirements and nutrient supply required to replace normal collagen and cellular components lost through routine wear. This results in tissue breakdown and the formation of a chronic nonhealing wound. infection plays only a contaminant role, with trauma being a possible initiating factor. diagnosis of ORN begins with a complete physical examination, including fiberoptic examination and biopsy of any suspicious lesion to eliminate the possibility of recurrent tumor. Treatment of ORN commonly requires the debridement of necrotic bone and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The head and neck surgeon must possess a high degree of suspicion to promptly diagnose ORN and initiate early treatment. Because of similarities in clinical presentation, the most important step in the initial management of suspected ORN is to eliminate the possibility of tumor recurrence or a new primary.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = radiation-induced
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3/34. The free musculocutaneous tensor fascia lata flap as a backup procedure in tumor surgery.

    The musculocutaneous tensor fascia lata (TFL) flap provides a small muscle belly and a strong fascial layer in combination with abundant skin coverage (15 x 40 cm), which makes the flap an attractive unit for composite free tissue transfer. The free TFL flap was used in nine cases of recurrent cancer of the chest wall (N = 7) and the abdominal wall (N = 2). The mean size of the full-thickness defects after tumor excision measured 12 x 25 cm. The operating time ranged from 4 to 8 hours (mean operating time, 5.5 hours). The operation was performed with two teams, and no repositioning of the patient was necessary during the operation. By raising the TFL flap, no additional area of the trunk was involved. The authors did not experience a prolonged ventilation time in their group of multimorbid patients. The donor site was closed directly (4 of 9 patients) or split skin grafted (5 of 9 patients). There was no functional deficit. In one patient the venous anastomosis had to be revised. There were no further complications, and no flaps were lost. The hospital stay was short (21 days on average), the outcome successful, and primary healing was obtained. The free TFL flap proved to be a reliable flap that is easy technically to harvest. Thus the free TFL flap is a valuable backup procedure in tumor surgery.
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ranking = 0.00039991779923275
keywords = cancer
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4/34. An interim extraoral prosthesis used for the rehabilitation of a patient treated for osteoradionecrosis of the mandible: a clinical report.

    In patients with tumors of the head and neck, ionizing radiation delivered in dosages that will kill cancer cells induces unavoidable changes in normal tissue. Bone cells and vascularity may be irreversibly injured, leaving devitalized bone susceptible to the development of osteoradionecrosis. This clinical report describes the fabrication of an acrylic/rubber prosthesis retained by an orthodontic headgear. The prosthesis was used to improve the mastication, speech, and saliva control of a patient treated for osteoradionecrosis of the mandible.
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ranking = 0.00039991779923275
keywords = cancer
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5/34. Concurrent spinal cord and vertebral bone marrow radionecrosis 8 years after therapeutic irradiation.

    Concurrent radionecrosis within the spinal cord and the bone marrow at the same thoracic level was observed 8 years after localized therapeutic irradiation in a patient who had undergone repeated cycles of radiotherapy, glucocorticoid treatment, and chemotherapy for a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Mechanisms combining radiotoxic potentialization by glucocorticoids/alkylating agents and delayed radiation-induced vasculitis involving the common arterial pathways to the spinal cord and to the vertebrae were speculated to have acted in a synergistic way.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = radiation-induced
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6/34. Treatment of necrotic infection on the anterior chest wall secondary to mastectomy and postoperative radiotherapy by the application of omentum and mesh skin grafting: report of a case.

    We report herein the case of a patient who initially underwent right radical mastectomy for breast carcinoma in 1988, followed by left breast-conserving surgery in 1997. On both occasions she was given postoperative radiation therapy of 50 Gy. Repeated dressings and the administration of antibiotics failed to heal ulcerative infected lesions that had formed on the anterior chest wall in early 1998. In 1999, the sternum and surrounding tissue were debrided and the anterior chest wall was reconstructed by omentum transposition and mesh skin grafting. The patient is currently well and alive without any evidence of recurrence of either infection or breast cancer.
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ranking = 0.00039991779923275
keywords = cancer
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7/34. osteoradionecrosis of the mandible after oromandibular cancer surgery.

    Although postoperative radiotherapy has proved effective in improving local control and survival in patients with head and neck cancers, its complications, especially mandibular osteoradionecrosis, reduce the quality of life. Mandibular surgery before the radiotherapy adds an additional risk factor for osteoradionecrosis. This study reviews patients in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, taiwan, over a 10-year period, who underwent intraoral cancer resection followed by postoperative radiotherapy and thereafter developed osteoradionecrosis of the mandible. A total of 24 men and three women with a mean age of 49.9 years were identified and included in the study. In 10 cases, tumor resection was performed with a marginal mandibulectomy; in eight cases, tumor resection was performed after mandibular osteotomy; and in three cases, a segmental mandibulectomy was performed, and the defect was reconstructed with a fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap. In six cases, tumor excisions were performed without interfering with the mandibular continuity. patients received postoperative external beam radiotherapy into the primary site and the neck, with a mean dose ( /-SD) of 5900 /- 1300 cGy in an average of 35 fractions during an average of 6.5 weeks. The average elapsed time between the end of radiation therapy and clinical diagnosis of osteoradionecrosis of the mandible was 11.2 months (range, 2 to 36 months). The time elapse between the end of the radiation therapy and the diagnosis of osteoradionecrosis was influenced by initial treatment (Kruskal-Wallis test: n = 27, chi-square = 12.884, p < 0.005), and this period was shorter if the mandibular osteotomy or marginal mandibulectomy was performed (the two lowest mean ranks in the test). However, if the initial surgery resulted in a segmental mandibulectomy reconstructed with a fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap, onset of the osteoradionecrosis was relatively late (Kruskal-Wallis test: n = 21, chi-square = 7.731, p = 0.052). After resection of osteoradionecrotic bone and surrounding soft tissue, 22 patients underwent reconstructive procedures with a fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap, and five patients underwent reconstructive procedures with an inferior genicular artery osteoperiosteal cutaneous flap. One fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap showed total failure and another showed a 25 percent skin loss; both were revised with pedicled flaps. The skin paddle of an inferior genicular artery flap was replaced with an anterolateral thigh flap because of anatomic variation of the skin vessel. Once the diagnosis of osteoradionecrosis is established, replacement of the dead bone and surrounding tissue with a vascularized free bone flap is inevitable, and a composite osteocutaneous free flap is a good option.
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ranking = 0.0023995067953965
keywords = cancer
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8/34. Complete healing of severe osteoradionecrosis with treatment combining pentoxifylline, tocopherol and clodronate.

    osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a late terminal sequela of irradiation that does not resolve spontaneously. In a preliminary study, a combination of pentoxifylline (PTX), tocopherol (Vit-E) and clodonate has been shown to be of clinical benefit with more than 50% regression of progressive ORN observed at 6 months in 12 patients. A 68-year-old woman presenting with severe exteriorized osteoradionecrosis had received radiotherapy for breast cancer 29 years previously. She had palpable breast fibrosis, including the sternum (15 cm x 11 cm) and a painful fistulous track in the upper part of the bone (orifice diameter 10 mm) surrounded by local inflammatory signs, and chronic osteitis with sequestra extrusion. MRI showed deep radiation-induced fibrosis below this area without cancer recurrence, and complete bone destruction over an area of 7 cm x 4 cm. Oral PTX (800 mg day(-1)), Vit.E (1000 IU day(-1)) and clodronate (1600 mg day(-1)) were administered daily for 3 years and were well tolerated. The patient exhibited regular clinical improvement until complete closure of the fistula and total regression of the clinical fibrosis. MRI confirmed the good response and showed heterogeneous restoration of the sternum, which was filled with new tissue. This is the first time that antifibrotic treatment with combined PTX-Vit.E plus clodronate has been shown to have a significant effect on necrosis, by completely reversing severe progressive ORN and the associated radiation-induced fibrosis.
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ranking = 0.50079983559847
keywords = radiation-induced, cancer
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9/34. The pedicled occipital artery scalp flap for salvage surgery of the neck.

    A small group of patients with complex head and neck cancer present with problems of wound healing following radiotherapy and reconstructive surgery. Provision of skin cover to the neck in these cases is often required and presents a challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. We present the use of a pedicled scalp flap based on the occipital artery for such defects. This flap is an axial patterned scalp flap incorporating hair-bearing skin. It may be up to 15 cm wide and can reach beyond the midline of the chin. The anatomy of the flap is described and its use illustrated in three cases. This flap is a useful addition to the options for reconstruction of neck defects in patients with head and neck cancer.
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ranking = 0.00079983559846549
keywords = cancer
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10/34. Management of cervical metastases in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue.

    OBJECTIVE: To clarify the role of neck dissection following primary radiotherapy for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Academic, tertiary care medical center. patients OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A consecutive series of 45 patients with biopsy-proven squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue and cervical metastases treated with primary radiotherapy at The University of california, san francisco, was examined. patients with a prior history of neck irradiation, neck dissection, or head and neck cancer within 5 years were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: overall survival and regional control. RESULTS: Of the 45 patients treated with definitive radiotherapy, 25 (56%) achieved a complete response, 13 (29%) achieved a partial response, 4 (9%) were nonresponders, and 3 (7%) did not complete radiotherapy. Two thirds of the complete responders had N2 or N3 disease; 3 had recurrences in the neck, 1 of which was an isolated neck recurrence. Of the 13 partial responders, 5 had isolated persistence of disease, with 4 undergoing neck dissections. The only long-term survivors among the partial responders were those 4 who underwent a neck dissection. overall survival was 50% at 3 years and 32% at 5 years. Regional control for complete responders was 84% at 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: The low rate of isolated regional recurrence in patients with a complete response to radiotherapy supports the practice of surveillance alone in such patients. patients with less than a complete response appear to benefit from prompt surgical salvage.
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ranking = 0.00039991779923275
keywords = cancer
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