Cases reported "Osteosclerosis"

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1/11. Lethal osteosclerotic skeletal dysplasia with intracellular inclusion bodies.

    We report an apparently previously undescribed form of lethal osteosclerotic skeletal dysplasia in a 30-week male fetus with micromelic shortness of the limbs. Radiographic findings at necropsy included increased density in all bones, most marked in the skull, mandible, and pubis. The ribs were very short, abnormally modeled, and wide anteriorly. The vertebrae were posteriorly hypoplastic and wedged, particularly in the cervical and lumbar regions. The femora and tibiae were short with wide distal metaphyses, undermodeled diaphyses, and coxa vara. The humeri, radii, and ulnae were also short and undermodeled with proximal and distal flare. Chondro-osseous morphology showed short chondrocyte columns, extension of hypertrophic cells into the metaphysis, and overgrowth of perichondral bone. In the resting cartilage there were large chondrocytes containing a homogeneous material staining pink with von Kossa trichrome, gray with toluidine blue, and black with silver methenamine. The cortical bone was lacking and the trabecular bone was hypercellular, thick, and coarse. Ultrastructurally, the resting zone chondrocytes were large and round with condensed chromatin and dilated loops of rough endoplasmic reticulum. The radiographic and histopathologic findings in this case are unique and differ from those seen in other reported lethal osteosclerotic skeletal dysplasias.
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2/11. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the sphenoid sinus: a serendipitous finding on a bone scan.

    A 22-year-old woman had a Tc-99m MDP whole-body scan for low back pain. A focal area of increased activity was seen in the skull base in the region of the sella turcica. A computed tomographic examination showed ground-glass opacification of the sphenoid sinus and bony sclerosis along its walls, characteristic of fibrous dysplasia. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia, the more common form compared with the polyostotic variety, occurs in 70% to 80% of all patients with fibrous dysplasia. Monostotic lesions usually involve the ribs, femur, tibia, cranium, maxilla, and mandible. The frontal and sphenoid bones are the cranial bones most commonly involved.
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3/11. erdheim-chester disease with intramuscular lipogranuloma.

    We report on a rare manifestation of erdheim-chester disease with intramuscular lipogranuloma. The patient was a 66-year-old man who noted a soft tissue mass in the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Radiographs revealed symmetrical osteosclerosis in the diametaphysis of both femora and tibiae. An open biopsy revealed a proliferation of lipid-laden histiocytes in the femoral bone marrow and the quadriceps femoris muscle. To our knowledge, this is the second case of erdheim-chester disease involving muscle.
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4/11. erdheim-chester disease with extensive marrow necrosis: a case report and literature review.

    erdheim-chester disease is a rare systemic disorder characterized by a fibrosing xanthogranulomatous infiltration of multiple organs. We report a case of erdheim-chester disease with diffuse necrosis leading to difficulty in making a prompt diagnosis. Radiologically, osteosclerotic lesions with osteolytic element involved metadiaphyses of both proximal tibia, and retroperitoneal infiltrations encasing both kidneys, both adrenals, and aorta were found. A biopsy of the tibia showed diffuse infiltration of foamy histiocytes, Touton-type giant cells, and fibroblastic cells associated with extensive coagulative necrosis. Immunohistochemically, foamy histiocytes were positive for CD68 and peanut agglutinin and negative for S-100 protein. A few Langerhans' cells, which were difficult to identify in hematoxylin-eosin stain, were highlighted by immunostain for S-100 protein. The patient received supportive therapy and was alive 1 1/2 years after diagnosis, with newly developed bilateral retrobulbar lesions and worsened heart failure.
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keywords = tibia
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5/11. MR imaging of medullary streaks in osteosclerosis: a case report.

    We present a case of medullary sclerosis of the appendicular skeleton in a patient with chronic renal insufficiency for whom MR imaging findings were characteristic. T1- and T2-weighted MR images showed multiple vertical lines (medullary streaks) of low signal intensity in the metaphyses and diaphyses of the distal femur and proximal tibia.
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6/11. A novel AIRE mutation in an APECED patient with candidiasis, adrenal failure, hepatitis, diabetes mellitus and osteosclerosis.

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, which is characterized by an immune-mediated destruction of endocrine tissues, chronic candidiasis and ectodermal disorders. In contrast to many other autoimmune diseases, APECED is associated with mutations of a single gene, designated autoimmune regulator (AIRE). We describe an APECED patient with severe deformities of the tibia with radiological signs of metaphyseal dysplasia in addition to candidiasis, hepatitis, diabetes mellitus and adrenal failure. In this patient, we identified a novel AIRE mutation in association with the C322fsX372 mutation in exon 8, which is frequently detected in Caucasian patients. The frame shift mutation G263fsX377 in exon 6 results in a protein lacking both PHD zinc-finger domains similar to the R257 X mutation. This novel mutation was not found in 50 German controls.
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keywords = tibia
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7/11. A case of hepatitis c-associated osteosclerosis in an elderly Japanese man.

    hepatitis c-Associated osteosclerosis (HCAO) is characterized by a marked increase in bone mass with deep bone pain. Since 1992, eleven cases of HCAO have been reported. This report describes an elderly Japanese man with HCAO, whose clinical course we followed for 3 years. A 68-year-old man developed pain in both pretibial regions in June 2000, and he had frequent episodic loss of muscular strength in his hands. He had recieved blood transfusion for a bleeding ulcer 43 years before and was seropositive for hepatitis c virus. His serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level was markedly increased, while his serum calcium was slightly decreased and serum phosphate was normal. Skeletal radiographs of the lower extremities showed a progressive increase in skeletal density, but did not show any apparent deformity. Administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs led to a reduction in bone pain. Treatment with vitamin D3 and calcium decreased the number of episodes of sudden muscular weakness and maintained serum calcium within the normal range. Three years after the onset of the disease, bone mineral density of his lumbar vertebrae and left hip rose from 0.963 g/cm2 to 1.096 g/cm2, and from 0.938 g/cm2 to 1.383 g/cm2, respectively. His serum ALP level decreased from 2889 to 277 IU/L (normal range: 104-338) and serum calcium normalized. These findings were accompanied by a decrease in bone pain. This case and previous reports suggest that the skeletal tissue of this disease appears to be of good quality.
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keywords = tibia
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8/11. Osteomesopycnosis. A new case.

    A 10-year old, mentally and physically normally developed girl complained of back pain following an accident. Radiological findings revealed an inhomogeneous, coarse osteosclerosis along the endplates and posterior parts of the ovoid shaped vertebral bodies, in the proximal and distal femora-, proximal humeri and tibia epiphyses, and along the lateral aspects of the femoral necks. The pelvis presented a mottled appearance of the trabecular pattern at the symphysis pubis and the lateral parts of ischii and sclerosis in the acetabular region. The only laboratory abnormality was a high serum parathormone level. The family history revealed an autosomal dominant inheritance. The name proposed by Maroteaux for this skeletal disorder is osteomesopycnosis, as the lesions were localized to the spine, pelvis and sometimes proximal femur. The skull, ribs, long bones, hands and feet were not involved in the reported 12 cases. Radiographs of this patient showed in addition changes in the hand. This disease must be distinguished from atypical axial osteomalacia.
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keywords = tibia
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9/11. Localized cortical bone sclerosis and intramedullar linear sclerosis in neurofibromatosis.

    A case of localised cortical bone sclerosis of the left tibia and intramedullar linear sclerosis in the left femur, in association with neurofibromatosis in a 25-year-old female, is presented. The differential diagnostic problems in relation to bone tumours are emphasised.
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10/11. Intramedullary osteosclerosis. A report of the clinicopathologic features of five cases.

    The clinicopathologic features of five patients with intramedullary osteosclerosis are presented. The patients, ranging in age from 8 to 52 years (mean 31 years), all presented with pain referred to the lower extremity. The sclerotic lesions involved the entire lower extremity in 1 patient, mid-tibial shaft in 2, distal tibia in 1, and distal fibula in 1 patient. The histopathologic features of intramedullary osteosclerosis overlap with those of melorheostosis. The differential diagnosis also includes a spectrum of entities, each characterized by osteosclerosis and each of which is compared and contrasted to the cases presented.
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keywords = tibia
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