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1/3. Otolaryngologic presentations of amyotrophic lateralsclerosis.

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To determine the incidence of voice disturbance as a presenting symptom of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and describe laryngologic features of ALS. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. methods: Records of patients with voice disturbance at a voice center and ALS patients at a neurology clinic were reviewed from January 1998 to March 2003. RESULTS: 15 of 1759 patients with voice disturbance were later diagnosed with ALS. Of 220 ALS patients presenting to neurology clinic, 44 had bulbar symptoms and 19 had initially presented to an otolaryngologist. dysarthria, dysphagia, tongue fasciculation, and incomplete vocal fold closure were common findings. Neuromuscular disease was missed in 8 of 19 ALS patients seen by an otolaryngologist. CONCLUSIONS: Although otolaryngologists rarely encounter undiagnosed ALS patients, a significant portion of bulbar ALS patients are initially evaluated by otolaryngologists. SIGNIFICANCE: Vigilance for neuromuscular abnormalities on otolaryngologic exam is important in patients who present with dysarthria, dysphonia, or dysphagia. EBM rating: C.
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2/3. Xanthoma disseminatum: its otolaryngological manifestations.

    The otolaryngological manifestations of xanthoma disseminatum are discussed. A case is reported in which the voice was recovered by a laryngofissure operation. The author believes that this is the first occasion on which this operation has been performed for this condition.
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keywords = voice
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3/3. Otolaryngological manifestations of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita.

    The important otolaryngological manifestations of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC), which heretofore have not been described in otolaryngological and other specialty journals, are reviewed. Thirty-seven patients with AMC were studied. Nine of these patients with neurogenic AMC, had otolaryngological manifestations. Six of these had Pierre Robin-like syndromes. Seven patients had severe dysphagia and aspiration pneumonitis. Five patients had voice changes, and three of these required tracheotomy to relieve laryngeal obstruction and prevent aspiration. Two of these patients were aphonic and had laryngeal paralysis. Three of the nine patients who had laryngeal examination showed supraglottic narrowing similar to laryngomalacia. Six patients with otolaryngological problems were autopsied, and two had pharyngeal biopsies. The histological examination demonstrated normal laryngeal and pharyngeal musculature. The cricoarytenoid joints were found normal in all the larynges examined. central nervous system dysfunction rather than simple muscle weakness, caused the dysphagia and respiratroy difficulties in patients with neurogenic AMC. Dysphagia with aspiration was the single most important cause of death in approximately 20% of patients with AMC. A tracheotomy and feeding gastrostomy appears essential for successful management of the otolaryngological complications of AMC.
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keywords = voice
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