Cases reported "Ovarian Cysts"

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1/59. Hyperreactio luteinalis associated with chronic renal failure.

    Hyperreactio luteinalis is a rare benign condition characterized by bilateral ovarian enlargement associated with pregnancies where high concentrations of maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophins are present. This condition may mimic the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. We report a case of a 34 year old woman with a history of chronic renal failure on haemodialysis who presented at 10 weeks' gestational age with hyperreactio luteinalis which was treated conservatively. Because of chronic renal failure, the presentation and course of the disease was different from that which has been previously reported.
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2/59. Early prenatal sonographic diagnosis of twin triploid gestation presenting with fetal hydrops and theca-lutein ovarian cysts.

    The presence of theca-lutein ovarian cysts in the early second trimester of pregnancy is highly suspicious for a complete hydatidiform molar pregnancy but can be seen in association with a partial mole. Theca-lutein cysts may occur following hormonal stimulation for assisted reproductive techniques or in association with multiple gestations. Rare causes include immune and nonimmune fetal hydrops, maternal hypothyroidism, and triploid gestations. We report a case of a monochorionic twin gestation in which prenatal sonography demonstrated multiple anomalies and hydrops in each twin and bilateral theca-lutein ovarian cysts. triploidy in both twins and a partial hydatidiform mole were confirmed at pathologic examination.
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3/59. Neonatal ovarian cyst associated with intestinal obstruction.

    Cystic and solid tumors of the ovary are rare during the newborn period and infancy. We present the case of a term female infant born to a mother with 24 years of age and found to have a cystic abdominal mass through prenatal sonographic evaluation in the third trimester. The cyst was also demonstrated by postnatal abdominal ultrasonography. Because of the clinical and radiological findings of intestinal obstruction, laparatomy was performed at the age of three days and a cyst of 10' 8' 8 cm was found in the right ovary. Pathological examination of cyst revealed a teach-lutein cyst.
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4/59. Hyperreactio luteinalis despite the absence of a corpus luteum and suppressed serum follicle stimulating concentrations in a triplet pregnancy.

    Hyperreactio luteinalis is characterized by moderate to marked cystic enlargement of the ovaries related to multiple theca lutein cysts and is associated with very high sex steroid concentrations. It is a rare condition especially in the first trimester. The case described below is believed to be the only case of hyperreactio luteinalis reported following frozen embryo transfer. This case provides an opportunity to gain further insight into the mechanism responsible for this unusual condition. The 30 year old woman demonstrated a slightly elevated LH/FSH ratio (5 and 3 mIU/ml respectively) and normal baseline androgen concentrations. Two years following oocyte retrieval she had a second frozen embryo transfer. The ovaries were normal size when the embryos were transferred and androgens were still normal. The ovaries did not begin to enlarge until 51 days from transfer. A dichorionic intrauterine pregnancy with monozygotic twins in the left gestational sac was seen. Eventually, 86 days from transfer, the ovaries enlarged to 145x103x116 mm right; and 83x95x117 mm left. serum oestradiol was 30 078 pg/ml, beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) 239 920 mIU/ml, serum progesterone >160 ng/ml, total testosterone 2254 ng/dl, free testosterone 42.3 pg/ml and androstenedione 7328 ng/dl. Throughout the first trimester, serum FSH was <1 mIU/ml. Thus, neither FSH nor a corpus luteum is necessary to initiate this syndrome.
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5/59. Fetal ovarian cysts: a report of three cases managed by intrauterine aspiration.

    Small follicular or functional theca-lutein cysts are a common finding in fetal and neonatal ovaries. After delivery, decrease of hormonal stimulation may lead to spontaneous resolution of the cyst. A high rate of complication has been underlined by recent studies, the most common being ovarian torsion with subsequent loss of the ovary. Because torsion may happen with any size of cyst, however large or small, we suggest in utero decompression even in small fetal ovarian cysts (< 5 cm). We report here three cases of such cysts managed by intrauterine aspiration with good outcome and no further need for neonatal surgery. In all cases cytology of the cyst aspirate demonstrated numbers of granulosa cells and fluid biochemistry showed a high amount of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone that confirmed the etiology as ovarian. Despite the small size of the cysts, no technical difficulties were encountered and no maternal or fetal morbidity occurred. Prenatal management of fetal ovarian cysts remains controversial, however, and our limited experience needs to be assessed on a larger number of cases.
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6/59. Delayed lactogenesis II secondary to gestational ovarian theca lutein cysts in two normal singleton pregnancies.

    Hyperreactio luteinalis is an unusual condition in which, during pregnancy, both ovaries are enlarged by multiple theca lutein cysts that produce a high level of testosterone. Several weeks postpartum, the cysts resolve and testosterone level returns to normal. Two case studies are presented in which mothers with gestational ovarian theca lutein cysts experienced delayed lactogenesis II. The elevated testosterone at the time of birth suppressed milk production. Once the testosterone level dropped to approximately 300 ng/dL, milk production began. After the initial delay, both mothers breastfed their infants without supplementation.
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7/59. Comparison between spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and hyperreactio luteinalis.

    CASE REPORT: We present here two patients with bilateral ovarian enlargement during the first trimester of pregnancy. We clinically diagnosed one case as spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and the other case as hyperreactio luteinalis. CONCLUSION: It may be difficult to discriminate severe hyperreactio luteinalis in the first trimester from spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation.
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8/59. Delayed lactogenesis II: a comparison of four cases.

    Lactogenesis II is the onset of copious milk production (i.e., the milk "coming in"), which usually occurs between 30 to 40 hours postpartum. When lactogenesis II fails to occur or is delayed, it may be due to a number of underlying hormonal or non-hormonal conditions. Of the various hormonal etiologies, many can be identified with the aid of a few standard blood tests. Gestational ovarian theca lutein cysts may cause delayed lactogenesis II and are fairly easily detected by ordering testosterone levels. Although this condition can delay lactogenesis II for as long as 31 days, with proper management women affected by these cysts have established breastfeeding. Three of the four women reviewed in this article were eventually able to produce 100% of their infants' caloric requirements.
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9/59. Conservative management of recurrent bilateral ovarian cysts in pregnancy: a case report.

    This is a case report of recurrent bilateral ovarian cysts in pregnancy. From the clinical picture these are likely to be theca lutein cysts. A lookout for complications involving these cysts is important. patients can be managed conservatively in the absence of complications. Likely mechanisms for the causation of this phenomenon are discussed.
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10/59. Spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and hyperreactio luteinalis are entities in continuum.

    Hyperreactio luteinalis (HL) and spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) are both rare conditions during pregnancy. The clinical presentation of HL and OHSS are comparable and both should be differentiated from ovarian carcinoma. We present a case of a 32-year-old woman who was initially seen with markedly enlarged multicystic ovaries and ascites in the 13th week of a spontaneously conceived pregnancy. Ultrasonographic follow-up and magnetic resonance imaging of the ovaries were employed in order to avoid exploratory laparotomy and rule out ovarian carcinoma. The patient received supportive therapy and delivered a healthy child at term. The increasing use of ultrasonography may lead to more frequent findings of multicystic ovaries in spontaneously conceived pregnancies. Making the distinction between HL and spontaneous OHSS in these cases may be difficult though clinically irrelevant as the approach to treatment is similar in both.
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