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1/49. Increased angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in a patient with severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in a patient with severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Private, university-affiliated infertility practice. PATIENT(S): A 35-year-old woman with OHSS. INTERVENTION(S): clomiphene citrate induction of ovulation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): plasma ACE activity. RESULT(S): The patient had a brain stem infarction as a result of thrombosis caused by severe OHSS. plasma ACE activity was significantly elevated and persisted long after resolution of the OHSS. CONCLUSION(S): Elevated ACE activity appears to have been associated with the development of OHSS in this patient. Further study of the ovarian renin-angiotensin system in the development of OHSS is warranted.
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keywords = ovulation
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2/49. ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and benign intracranial hypertension in pregnancy after in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer: case report.

    ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a dangerous and sometimes life-threatening complication of ovulation induction with exogenous gonadotrophins. While many complications of severe OHSS are recognized we have only identified one review detailing neurological problems. This report concerns a 32-year-old patient with bilateral tubal blockage who achieved her first pregnancy following in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer. Shortly after embryo transfer she developed clinical signs of moderate OHSS with symptoms which were later diagnosed as benign intracranial hypertension (BIH). The BIH was treated effectively using repeated lumbar puncture and diuretics. Spontaneous labour and delivery occurred at 40 weeks' gestation. There was no neurological sequel and no recurrence of the BIH 2 years after the pregnancy. The possible link between OHSS and BIH is discussed as well as the risks of further pregnancy.
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keywords = ovulation
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3/49. Midcycle administration of single-dose GnRHa for luteal phase failure in women with ovarian hyperstimulation. A report of five cases.

    BACKGROUND: Exogenous administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) induces an endogenous midcycle gonadotropin surge. However, its use to induce ovulation and maintain luteal function in non-in vitro fertilization patients who receive ovarian stimulation is unknown. CASES: Five infertile women who underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with human menotropin developed multiple ovarian follicles. In an attempt to circumvent the potential ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, 1 mg of leuprolide acetate was administered subcutaneously to three patients in an attempt to induce the endogenous luteinizing hormone surge. All three patients began menstruation six to seven days after GnRHa administration with serum progesterone levels between 0.2 and 0.5 ng/mL. Similar ovarian stimulation cycles with ovulation induced by human chorionic gonadotropin in these individuals revealed a normal luteal phase length and midluteal progesterone levels. When double doses of leuprolide acetate were used on two patients, normal luteal length and midluteal serum progesterone levels occurred. CONCLUSION: A single bolus of GnRHa during the late follicular phase may be inadequate to initiate normal luteal function in cycles with ovarian hyperstimulation.
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keywords = ovulation
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4/49. Deep vein thrombosis during administration of HMG for ovarian stimulation.

    We report a case of activated protein c (APC) resistance and deep calf vein thrombosis under controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization. The thrombosis occurred before administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin for ovulation induction on the 8th day of hMG (human menopausal gonadotrophin). The patient was stimulated according to the long luteal protocol. Cases of arterial and venous thrombosis as a result of ovarian stimulations are reviewed.
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keywords = ovulation
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5/49. An autopsy case of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome with massive pulmonary edema and pleural effusion.

    ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is the most serious complication of ovulation induction with exogenous gonadotropins, such as human menopausal gonadotropin and follicle-stimulating hormone. These hormones are considered to increase capillary permeability and cause third space fluid shift. We report an autopsy case of severe OHSS in a 28-year-old Japanese female. The patient developed bilateral chest pain and progressive dyspnea during the course of administration of human gonadotropins. pleural effusion and hypouresis clinically disappeared 4 days after the onset of the symptoms, but the patient died suddenly of rapid respiratory insufficiency. autopsy examination revealed massive pulmonary edema, intra-alveolar hemorrhage and pleural effusion without any evidence of pulmonary thromboembolism. Histopathological examination of the ovary demonstrated multiple well-developed follicle formations, consistent with OHSS. It is very important to recognize that massive pulmonary edema can occur in a patient with OHSS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first autopsy report of a patient with severe OHSS.
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keywords = ovulation
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6/49. Spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation and primary hypothyroidism with a naturally conceived pregnancy.

    BACKGROUND: ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, not related to ovulation induction, is rare. A medline search from 1987 to 1997 using the key words "spontaneous ovarian stimulation," "pregnancy," and "hypothyroidism" revealed only five cases: three associated with pregnancies and two with primary hypothyroidism. CASE: A 25-year-old white gravida 2, para 1, at 11-12 weeks' gestation presented with mild distension of a nontender abdomen, myxedematous facies, and large bilateral, multilobulated ovarian cysts. Conception had occurred spontaneously. Thyroid stimulating hormone was elevated, and free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine were low. hypothyroidism, associated with spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, was diagnosed, and oral levothyroxine (0.10 mg/day) was started. With TSH still elevated at 21 weeks, levothyroxine was increased to 0.20 mg/day, and by 24 weeks, TSH and ovarian size were normal. Vaginal delivery of a 1120 g male infant occurred at 28 weeks. CONCLUSION: A case of naturally conceived pregnancy associated with spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation and primary hypothyroidism is reported.
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keywords = ovulation
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7/49. Subclavian deep vein thrombosis associated with the use of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (Gonal-F) complicating mild ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe two cases of subclavian deep vein thrombosis (DVT) associated with the use of recombinant gonadotropins and mild ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and review the literature associated with this condition. DESIGN: Retrospective study (case report). SETTING: Tertiary academic IVF program. PATIENT(s): Two women undergoing IVF with intracytoplasmic sperm injection due to male factor infertility. INTERVENTION(s): Ovaluation induction with recombinant FSH, IVF, and therapeutic heparinization. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(s): Coagulation studies, resolution of DVT, delivery at term. RESULT(s): Mild OHSS with left subclavian thrombosis occurred in two patients. Laboratory evaluation revealed normal protein c, protein s, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), and absence of antiphospholipid (APA) and anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA). antithrombin iii levels and coagulation studies were also within normal limits. Both patients tested negative for a factor v Leiden mutation and delivered healthy infants at term. CONCLUSION(s): arm swelling associated with the use of gonadotropins during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation should be promptly evaluated and treated. subclavian vein thrombosis is a rare complication of ovulation induction, and the possibility that recombinant gonadotropins increase the risk for this complication should be further studied.
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keywords = ovulation
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8/49. ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome complicating a spontaneous singleton pregnancy: a case report.

    It has been known that most cases of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) are associated with the use of exogenous gonadotropins to induce multiple ovulation. However, OHSS is infrequently associated with a spontaneous ovulatory cycle, usually in the case of multiple gestations, hypothyroidism, or polycystic ovarian syndrome. We report a case of severe OHSS in a spontaneously pregnant woman with no underlying disease.
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keywords = ovulation
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9/49. Central retinal artery occlusion associated with severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    PURPOSE: ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a serious iatrogenic complication of ovulation induction. It is a potentially lethal condition, with severe complications which include ovarian enlargement, and massive fluid redistribution from the vascular system into free spaces resulting in ascites, pleural effusion, electrolyte imbalance, hemoconcentration, hypovolemia, oliguria, and adult respiratory distress syndrome. thromboembolism is a rare but extremely serious complication. CASE REPORT: We report a case of severe OHSS, presenting with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). DISCUSSION: This combination has not been reported previously.
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keywords = ovulation
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10/49. ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome associated with clomiphene citrate.

    Ovarian hyperstimulation is a recognized complication of ovulation induction with gonadotrophins. The syndrome is becoming more common as the number of women undergoing in-vitro fertilization increases. It is rarely seen in conjunction with clomiphene citrate usage. This case report is of moderate to severe ovarian hyperstimulation in a patient who was treated with clomiphene citrate because of infertility secondary to anovulation. She presented with amenorrhoea for five weeks, lower abdominal pain and a positive urinary human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) test. Pelvic ultrasonography was suggestive of a possible ectopic pregnancy with a differential diagnosis of a ruptured ovarian cyst. Diagnostic laparoscopy was done followed by laparotomy. Oophorectomy was performed because the ovary was thought to be complex with solid areas. However, conservative management with avoidance of laparotomy is the recommendation in confirmed cases of ovarian hyperstimulation but this requires a high level of suspicion in patients who have ovulation induction.
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ranking = 3
keywords = ovulation
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