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1/25. ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: imperatives for the emergency physician.

    ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a serious disorder complicating the use of ovary-stimulating drugs in assisted reproduction programs. While its pathogenesis is not fully understood, it is believed that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation is vital to the development of OHSS. Further evidence suggests that the renin-angiotensin pathway, vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelin-1, and cytokines all play a role in altering ovarian capillary permeability, leading to increased interstitial fluid. OHSS can produce a myriad of symptoms and signs involving numerous body systems, up to and including hypovolemic shock and acute renal failure. As growing numbers of women opt for assisted reproduction, it becomes increasingly important for emergency physicians to be able to recognize this condition. Clinical classification into mild, moderate, severe, and critical forms of OHSS can help the physician plan appropriate investigations, admission requirements, and acute management. Two cases of OHSS, representing the spectrum of this problem, are presented along with a review of the literature.
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2/25. An autopsy case of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome with massive pulmonary edema and pleural effusion.

    ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is the most serious complication of ovulation induction with exogenous gonadotropins, such as human menopausal gonadotropin and follicle-stimulating hormone. These hormones are considered to increase capillary permeability and cause third space fluid shift. We report an autopsy case of severe OHSS in a 28-year-old Japanese female. The patient developed bilateral chest pain and progressive dyspnea during the course of administration of human gonadotropins. pleural effusion and hypouresis clinically disappeared 4 days after the onset of the symptoms, but the patient died suddenly of rapid respiratory insufficiency. autopsy examination revealed massive pulmonary edema, intra-alveolar hemorrhage and pleural effusion without any evidence of pulmonary thromboembolism. Histopathological examination of the ovary demonstrated multiple well-developed follicle formations, consistent with OHSS. It is very important to recognize that massive pulmonary edema can occur in a patient with OHSS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first autopsy report of a patient with severe OHSS.
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keywords = ovary
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3/25. Evolution of clinical symptoms in a young woman with a recurrent gonadotroph adenoma causing ovarian hyperstimulation.

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the clinical course in a young female with gonadotroph adenoma causing ovarian stimulation. PATIENT AND methods: Our patient was a 23-year-old woman with a history of oligomenorrhea who had previously undergone bilateral ovarian wedge resection owing to the clinical appearance of polycystic ovaries. Two years later, she sought treatment for headache, galactorrhea, history of spotting and lower abdominal distension. FSH, LH, beta-LH, inhibin A and B, estradiol, prolactin (PRL), and beta-chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-CG) were measured, and the responses of FSH, LH and beta-LH to thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) were documented. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor tissue was performed after surgery. Five years after the trans-sphenoidal surgery, the patient again became oligomenorrheic. A large recurrent adenoma was diagnosed on CT one year later. Transvaginal ultrasound showed ovaries of normal size with multiple small cystic formations simulating a polycystic pattern, While the patient was awaiting surgery, a pituitary apoplexy occurred. Emergency decompressive surgery was performed and the patient fully recovered. RESULTS: Enlarged ovaries were found on ultrasound examination simulating a hyperstimulation-like pattern. At that time, elevated levels of FSH (13.4IU/l) and marginally elevated levels of beta-LH (1.43ng/ml) were found, whereas the level of LH (0.5IU/l) was subnormal. plasma estradiol was markedly supranormal (6150pmol/l). Levels of inhibin A and B were elevated (326pg/ml and 588pg/ml respectively). The prolactin level (70ng/ml) was increased, whereas beta-chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-CG) was normal. Significantly increased FSH, LH, and beta-LH responses to TRH stimulation were documented. Pituitary macroadenoma was found on MRI scan and removed by trans-sphenoidal surgery. Immunohistochemical examination showed high positivity for beta-CG and LH, and slight positivity for FSH. Five years after the surgery, estradiol was elevated (1160pmol/l), whereas basal levels of LH (4.65IU/l) and FSH (3.98IU/l) were not suppressed. After the second operation, immunostaining of the adenoma tissue confirmed the previous findings. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of gonadotrophins in our case did not prove to be a method for identifying a large recurrent gonadotroph pituitary adenoma. The sonographic ovarian imaging varied from a polycystic- to an ovarian hyperstimulation-like pattern during the evolution of the tumour.
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keywords = polycystic
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4/25. Perforated duodenal ulcer associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: Case Report.

    ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) remains the most serious medical complication of controlled ovarian stimulation. An unusual case of perforated duodenal ulcer following critical OHSS is presented. A 29 year old nulligravid woman with polycystic ovarian syndrome underwent her first attempt at in-vitro fertilization. She was admitted to the hospital with critical OHSS and subsequently found to have a perforated posterior duodenal ulcer. She underwent exploratory laparotomy, antrectomy and gastrojejunostomy. Pathological analysis of her gastric antrum confirmed chronic gastritis and helicobacter pylori. She required prolonged assisted ventilation, vasopressor support, multiple i.v. antibiotics, blood product replacement and nutritional support. The patient was hospitalized for a total of 47 days and then transferred to a rehabilitation facility for an additional 30 days before being discharged to home. In this critically ill patient with OHSS, severe stress associated with invasive monitoring and multiple medical therapies in the intensive care unit as well as H. pylori infection appear to be the most probable causative factors of her perforated viscus. Prompt recognition of potential complications and proper medical intervention are essential in the management of patients with OHSS. Avoidance strategies are still needed.
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ranking = 1.5983889038212
keywords = polycystic
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5/25. ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome complicating a spontaneous singleton pregnancy: a case report.

    It has been known that most cases of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) are associated with the use of exogenous gonadotropins to induce multiple ovulation. However, OHSS is infrequently associated with a spontaneous ovulatory cycle, usually in the case of multiple gestations, hypothyroidism, or polycystic ovarian syndrome. We report a case of severe OHSS in a spontaneously pregnant woman with no underlying disease.
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ranking = 1.5983889038212
keywords = polycystic
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6/25. Laparoscopic treatment of a twisted hyperstimulated ovary after IVF.

    ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a common problem associated with modern In-Vitro Fertilisation techniques (IVF). However, torsion of a hyperstimulated ovary occurring after IVF is a much rarer event. In this case report, we will describe the laparoscopic management of a pregnant patient with a twisted hyperstimulated ovary after an IVF programme.
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keywords = ovary
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7/25. blastocyst development and pregnancies after IVF of mature oocytes retrieved from unstimulated patients with PCOS after in-vivo HCG priming.

    A major side-effect of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). In-vitro maturation (IVM) of immature oocytes represents a potential alternative for the fertility treatment of these patients. Two patients at high risk of OHSS were primed with 10,000 IU HCG 36 h before oocyte retrieval. After retrieval, oocyte maturity was evaluated. oocytes considered to be mature at the time of collection were inseminated by IVF or ICSI, and the resulting embryos were cultured to blastocysts. Transfer of these blastocysts resulted in pregnancy in both patients. Immature oocytes were cultured in YS medium supplemented with 30% human follicular fluid, 1 IU/ml rFSH, 10 IU/ml HCG and 10 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (rhEGF). After in-vitro maturation of the oocytes, ICSI was performed. Two and five expanded blastocysts were obtained after 5 day culture and were cryopreserved. This report indicates that mature oocytes can be collected at the time of retrieval using only in-vivo HCG priming in women with PCOS, and clinical pregnancy can be established by transfer of blastocysts derived from the mature oocytes. This approach opens a potential for a new dimension in the management of patients with PCOS.
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ranking = 1.5983889038212
keywords = polycystic
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8/25. ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome associated with clomiphene citrate.

    Ovarian hyperstimulation is a recognized complication of ovulation induction with gonadotrophins. The syndrome is becoming more common as the number of women undergoing in-vitro fertilization increases. It is rarely seen in conjunction with clomiphene citrate usage. This case report is of moderate to severe ovarian hyperstimulation in a patient who was treated with clomiphene citrate because of infertility secondary to anovulation. She presented with amenorrhoea for five weeks, lower abdominal pain and a positive urinary human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) test. Pelvic ultrasonography was suggestive of a possible ectopic pregnancy with a differential diagnosis of a ruptured ovarian cyst. Diagnostic laparoscopy was done followed by laparotomy. Oophorectomy was performed because the ovary was thought to be complex with solid areas. However, conservative management with avoidance of laparotomy is the recommendation in confirmed cases of ovarian hyperstimulation but this requires a high level of suspicion in patients who have ovulation induction.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ovary
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9/25. Three-dimensional power Doppler in the diagnosis of ovarian torsion.

    Recent advances in ultrasound technology have enabled the diagnosis of overall tissue vascularization by three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler. This case report describes 3D power Doppler characteristics of unilateral ovarian torsion 2 weeks after embryo transfer in a pregnant patient with bilateral hyperstimulated ovaries. Before laparoscopic treatment the twisted right ovary showed the following 3D power Doppler indices: mean grayness index, 15.66; vacularization index, 0.24; flow index, 21.99; vascularization flow index, 0.05. One hour after laparoscopic treatment 3D power Doppler indices of the untwisted ovary were as follows: mean grayness index, 25.61; vacularization index, 3.81; flow index, 42.800; vascularization flow index, 1.63. The resistance index of the ovarian vessels before and after laparoscopy showed no significant difference (5.1 vs. 5.2). The diagnosis of ovarian torsion can be better made with 3D power Doppler sonography than with two-dimensional Doppler sonography.
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ranking = 2
keywords = ovary
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10/25. Hyperreactio luteinalis in a woman with high-risk factors. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Hyperreactio luteinalis is a rare condition characterized by multicystic and bilateral ovarian enlargement associated with high maternal human chorionic gonadotropin serum levels. CASE: A case of spontaneous twin pregnancy, polycystic kidney and thyrotoxicosis was treated conservatively. CONCLUSION: In this case, hyperreactio luteinalis was associated with twin pregnancy in a woman with preexisting renal failure. The association of other endocrinopathies, such as hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus, creates a clinical problem that could be quite hazardous in pregnancy if this association is not detected.
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ranking = 1.5983889038212
keywords = polycystic
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