Cases reported "Pain, Intractable"

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1/11. Opioids in non-cancer pain: a life-time sentence?

    There is continuing reluctance to prescribe strong opioids for the management of chronic non-cancer pain due to concerns about side-effects, physical tolerance, withdrawal and addiction. Randomized controlled trials have now provided evidence for the efficacy of opioids against both nociceptive and neuropathic pain. However, there is considerable variability in response rates, possibly depending on the type of pain, the type of opioid and its route of administration, the time to follow-up, compliance and the development of tolerance. Five patients were selected with nociceptive or neuropathic pain in whom other pharmacological or physical therapies had failed to provide satisfactory pain relief. They received transdermal fentanyl (starting dose 25 microg/h) for at least 6 weeks. Transdermal fentanyl dosage was titrated upwards as required. Transdermal fentanyl provided adequate pain relief in patients with nociceptive pain (diabetic ulcer, osteoporotic vertebral fracture, ankylosing spondylitis) or neuropathic pain with a nociceptive component (radicular pain due to disc protrusion, herpetic neuralgia). The duration of treatment ranged from 6 weeks to 6 months for four cases. In the case of ankylosing spondylitis, treatment was carried out for 2 years, stopped and then restarted successfully. There were no withdrawal effects or addictive behaviour on treatment cessation, regardless of duration of the treatment. In conclusion, strong opioids may provide prolonged effective pain relief in selected patients with nociceptive and neuropathic non-cancer pain. Transdermal fentanyl treatment can often be temporary and can easily be stopped following adequate pain relief without withdrawal effects or any evidence of addictive behaviour.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neuralgia
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2/11. Geniculate neuralgia: long-term results of surgical treatment.

    A rare cause of otalgia is geniculate neuralgia. In its most typical form, it is characterized by severe paroxysmal neuralgic pain centered directly in the ear. The pain can be of a gradual onset and of a dull, persistent nature, but occasionally it is sharp and stabbing. When the pain becomes intractable, an operation to surgically excise the nervus intermedius and geniculate ganglion via the middle cranial fossa approach is indicated. The purpose of this article is to review the long-term outcomes in 64 patients who were treated in this manner. Findings indicate that excision of the nervus intermedius and geniculate ganglion can be routinely performed without causing facial paralysis and that it is an effective definitive treatment for intractable geniculate neuralgia.
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ranking = 6
keywords = neuralgia
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3/11. Long-term pain control in trigeminal neuralgia with local anesthetics using an indwelling catheter in the mandibular nerve.

    OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine the usefulness of long-term continuous trigeminal nerve block with local anesthetics using an indwelling catheter in a patient with trigeminal neuralgia. DESIGN: The study design included pain control in a patient with trigeminal neuralgia until the time of neurosurgical operation. SETTING: The study was conducted in the Dental Hospital of tokyo Medical and Dental University. PATIENT: The patient was a 78-year-old woman with trigeminal neuralgia in the right maxillary region. Her pain could not be controlled by carbamazepine and was unbearable. INTERVENTION: The authors estimated the patient's pain intensity, quality, and locality using a visual analog scale to determine the effectiveness of continuous nerve block. OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual analog scores were measured during treatment. The treatment term was divided into three periods according to the difference of the catheter location and injection protocol (premandibular nerve block, infuser injection, and patient-controlled analgesia [PCA] pump injection). The authors also examined the patient's general condition and blood concentration of drugs. RESULTS: The visual analog values were 44.8 /- 3.6, 26.7 /- 3.5, and 11.9 /- 3.1 mm in each period, respectively. The value in the PCA pump infusion period was significantly lower than that in the other periods. No side effects of the local anesthetics were observed on the patient's systemic condition. CONCLUSIONS: The authors controlled trigeminal neuralgia pain by blocking the mandibular nerve with local anesthetics administered through an indwelling catheter. Because the continuous nerve block with local anesthetics is reversible and only mildly toxic, this method is beneficial for pain control in patients with trigeminal neuralgia scheduled to undergo microvascular decompression.
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ranking = 9
keywords = neuralgia
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4/11. Common factors contributing to intractable pain and medical problems with insufficient drug uptake in areas to be treated, and their pathogenesis and treatment: Part I. Combined use of medication with acupuncture, ( ) qi gong energy-stored material, soft laser or electrical stimulation.

    Most frequently encountered causes of intractable pain and intractable medical problems, including headache, post-herpetic neuralgia, tinnitus with hearing difficulty, brachial essential hypertension, cephalic hypertension and hypotension, arrhythmia, stroke, osteo-arthritis, Minamata disease, Alzheimer's disease and neuromuscular problems, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and cancer are often found to be due to co-existence of 1) viral or bacterial infection, 2) localized microcirculatory disturbances, 3) localized deposits of heavy metals, such as lead or mercury, in affected areas of the body, 4) with or without additional harmful environmental electro-magnetic or electric fields from household electrical devices in close vicinity, which create microcirculatory disturbances and reduced acetylcholine. The main reason why medications known to be effective prove ineffective with intractable medical problems, the authors found, is that even effective medications often cannot reach these affected areas in sufficient therapeutic doses, even though the medications can reach the normal parts of the body and result in side effects when doses are excessive. These conditions are often difficult to treat or may be considered incurable in both Western and Oriental medicine. As solutions to these problems, the authors found some of the following methods can improve circulation and selectively enhance drug uptake: 1) acupuncture, 2) Low pulse repetition rate electrical stimulation (1-2 pulses/second), 3) ( ) qi Gong energy, 4) Soft lasers using Ga-As diode laser or He-Ne gas laser, 5) Certain electro-magnetic fields or rapidly changing or moving electric or magnetic fields, 6) Heat or moxibustion, 7) Individually selected calcium channel blockers, 8) Individually selected Oriental herb medicines known to reduce or eliminate circulatory disturbances. Each method has advantages and limitations and therefore the individually optimal method has to be selected. Applications of ( ) qi Gong energy stored paper or cloth every 4 hours, along with effective medications, were often found to be effective, as Qigongnized materials can often be used repeatedly, as long as they are not exposed to rapidly changing electric, magnetic or electro-magnetic fields. Application of ( ) qi Gong energy-stored paper or cloth, soft laser or changing electric field for 30-60 seconds on the area above the medulla oblongata, vertebral arteries or endocrine representation area at the tail of pancreas reduced or eliminated microcirculatory disturbances and enhanced drug uptake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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ranking = 1
keywords = neuralgia
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5/11. injections of botulinum toxin type a produce pain alleviation in intractable trigeminal neuralgia.

    To report the effects of local injections of botulinum toxin type A regarding pain relief and long-term control in a patient with intractable trigeminal neuralgia. The patient was a 75-year-old man with trigeminal neuralgia in the left hemifacial region. His pain was unbearable and could not be controlled by carbamazepine, amitriptyline, or blocked by infiltration of a glycerol solution or phenol. The authors evaluated pain intensity, quality, and location using a visual analog scale to establish the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A injections. Two units of botulinum toxin type A (Botox) were subcutaneously injected once in eight points distributed along the territory of V1 and V2. Visual Analog Scores were measured at baseline and at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after treatment. The authors also examined the patient's general condition and daily life activities. The Visual Analog values were, respectively, 82, 54, 25, 25, and 45 mm at each follow-up examination. No side effects were observed on the site of injection and on the patient's clinical state. The authors have been able to reduce trigeminal neuralgia pain with botulinum toxin type A injections in the V1, V2 territory during all the period of study, as well as to withdraw all medication. Interestingly, there was concomitant reduction of pain also in V3, which was not injected.
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ranking = 7
keywords = neuralgia
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6/11. ganglionectomy of C-2 for the treatment of medically refractory occipital neuralgia.

    Occipital neuralgia is a result of neuropathic pain transmission in the distribution of the greater occipital nerve. Because it is well anatomically localized, occipital neuralgia has been the focus of various surgical treatments. Ablation, decompression, and modulation of the C-2 nerve have all been described as effective treatments. The C-2 dorsal root ganglionectomy provides effective treatment for this disorder with a low incidence of unpleasant side effects. In this review the authors summarize the current treatment of occipital neuralgia.
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ranking = 7
keywords = neuralgia
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7/11. Peripheral nerve field stimulation in chronic abdominal pain.

    INTRODUCTION: spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has become an accepted therapeutic modality for the treatment of intractable pain syndromes, primarily used today in the settings of failed back surgery syndrome, neuropathic back and limb pain. The use of spinal cord stimulators for peripheral nerve field electrostimulation is becoming increasingly recognized as a safe, effective alternative for chronic pain conditions that are refractory to medical management and do not respond to traditional dorsal column stimulation. Advances in technology have allowed for minimally invasive percutaneous placement of multipolar leads with complex programmable systems to provide patient- controlled relief of pain in precisely targeted regions. With these improvements in hardware, the use of Peripheral Nerve Field Stimulation (PNFS) appears to have an untapped potential for providing patients with pain relief for a wider range of underlying conditions than was previously believed possible. We present three cases, each with a different etiology of chronic abdominal pain: one with inguinal neuralgia, one with chronic pancreatitis, and one with pain following liver transplant. Each patient was refractory to conventional medical approaches. For all three patients, PNFS provided significant relief from pain, enabling patients to decrease or discontinue their opioid medications and to enjoy significant improvement in their quality of life. We conclude that PNFS is a safe, effective and minimally invasive treatment that may be used successfully for a wide variety of indications including chronic abdominal pain.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neuralgia
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8/11. High thoracic neurinoma mimicking femoral neuralgia.

    We report a case of spinal neurinoma at a high thoracic level, whose main presentation was intractable pain in a body part innervated by the right femoral nerve. Sensations of pain and temperature were impaired in the right thigh, but usual symptoms of myelopathy were undetectable. In conjunction with the other reports, this case suggests that spinal tumors at high thoracic levels can produce remote symptoms mimicking peripheral neuropathy such as femoral or sciatic neuralgia.
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ranking = 5
keywords = neuralgia
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9/11. The use of the Crasilneck Bombardment Technique in problems of intractable organic pain.

    The Crasilneck Bombardment Technique consists of six diversified methods of hypnotic inductions used consecutively within one hour; it has been used with a series of recalcitrant pain patients. The six sequential systems, used 7 to 10 minutes each, include (1) relaxation, (2) displacement, (3) age regression, (4) glove anesthesia, (5) hypnoanesthesia, and (6) self-hypnosis. The 12 consecutive patients, all of whom manifested severe organic pain problems, had not responded to any form of treatment, including standard hypnosis techniques. Ten of the twelve patients responded positively to the Bombardment Method. One year posttreatment, patient estimates of pain control ranged from 80% for minimal relief to 90% for maximum relief most of the time. The types of intractable pain treated were six headaches, three backaches, one arthritic pain, one postherpetic neuralgia pain problem, and one temporomandibular joint pain.
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ranking = 12.950408791954
keywords = postherpetic, neuralgia
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10/11. hyperalgesia and myoclonus in terminal cancer patients treated with continuous intravenous morphine.

    Eight cancer patients in the terminal stages of the disease treated with high doses of intravenous morphine developed hyperalgesia. All cases were retrospectively sampled from three different hospitals in Copenhagen. Five patients developed universal hyperalgesia and hyperesthesia which in 2 cases were accompanied by myoclonus. In 3 patients a pre-existing neuralgia increased to excruciating intensity and in 2 of these cases myoclonus occurred simultaneously. Although only few clinical descriptions of the relationship between hyperalgesia/myoclonus and high doses of morphine are available, experimental support from animal studies indicates that morphine, or its metabolites, plays a causative role for the observed behavioural syndrome. The possible mechanisms are discussed and treatment proposals given suggesting the use of more efficacious opioids with less excitatory potency in these situations.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neuralgia
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