Cases reported "Pain, Postoperative"

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1/79. Anaesthetic management for a left pneumonectomy in a child with bronchopleural fistula.

    The anaesthetic management of a left pneumonectomy in a 18-month-old girl with a bronchopleural fistula is described. An ordinary tracheal tube was slit at the bevel to ensure upper lobe ventilation on right endobronchial intubation. A combination of a bronchial blocker, endobronchial intubation with a slit tube, and nerve blocks for these manoeuvres was used. Pain relief by a thoracic epidural block ensured good physiotherapy and a comfortable postoperative period.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nerve block, block, nerve
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2/79. Severe incisional pain and long thoracic nerve injury after port-access minimally invasive mitral valve surgery.

    The authors describe the occurrence of severe postoperative pain and long thoracic nerve injury after Port-Access minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. The potential for these events and the impact on postoperative hospitalization and rehabilitation are emphasized.
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ranking = 0.0093713974686633
keywords = nerve
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3/79. Continuous shoulder analgesia via an indwelling axillary brachial plexus catheter.

    Continuous interscalene brachial plexus blockade can provide anesthesia and analgesia in the shoulder region. Difficulty accessing the interscalene space and premature displacement of interscalene catheters may preclude their use in certain situations. We present two case reports in which a catheter was advanced from the axilla along the brachial plexus sheath to the interscalene space to provide continuous cervicobrachial plexus analgesia. In the first case report, previous neck surgery made the anatomic landmarks for performing an interscalene block very difficult. An epidural catheter was advanced from the axillary brachial plexus sheath to the interscalene space under fluoroscopic guidance. This technique provided both intraoperative analgesia for shoulder surgery as well as 24-hour postoperative analgesia by an infusion of 0.125% bupivacaine. In the second case report, a catheter was inserted in a similar fashion from the axillary to the interscalene space to provide 14 days of continuous analgesia in the management of complex regional pain syndrome. We have found that this technique allows us to secure the catheter more easily than with the traditional interscalene approach and thus prevents premature dislodgment. This approach may be a suitable alternative when either an interscalene or an infraclavicular catheter may not be inserted.
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ranking = 0.021527375493148
keywords = block
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4/79. Intraspinal haematoma following lumbar epidural anaesthesia in a neonate.

    A neonate with chromosomal 9 abnormality and omphalocele received a lumbar epidural catheter after laparotomy. Several attempts were needed to establish this catheter. Bleeding occurred from the operative wound after surgery. Using an epidural infusion with ropivacaine 0.1% for 48 h postoperative pain relief was sufficient. Four days after epidural catheter removal, dysfunction of the sacral parasympathetic nerves was noted. Motor and sensor function of the lower limbs were unaffected. magnetic resonance imaging showed a localized intraspinal haematoma in the lower lumbar region.
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ranking = 0.0018742794937327
keywords = nerve
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5/79. Percutaneous radiofrequency lesioning of sensory branches of the obturator and femoral nerves for the treatment of hip joint pain.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The sensory innervation of the hip joint includes the sensory articular branches of the obturator and femoral nerves. In this report, we retrospectively evaluated 14 cases in which hip joint pain was treated by percutaneous radiofrequency lesioning of sensory branches of obturator and/or femoral nerves. methods: Fourteen patients who had hip joint pain and underwent percutaneous radiofrequency lesioning of sensory branches of obturator and/or femoral nerves were studied. In all cases, intra-articular hip joint block or articular branch block of obturator nerve with local anesthesia was transiently effective. Radiofrequency lesioning was performed at 75 degrees C to 80 degrees C for 90 seconds using an RFG-3B generator and Sluijter-Mehta cannulae kit (Radionics, Burlington, MA) for the obturator nerve in 9 patients and for both the obturator and femoral nerves in 5 patients. To assess pain intensity, a visual analog scale (VAS) was used. RESULTS: The VAS scores before and after the radiofrequency lesioning were 6.8 /- 0.9 and 2.7 /- 1.3, respectively. Twelve patients (86%) reported at least 50% relief of pain for 1 to 11 months. There were no side effects or motor weakness observed. CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous radiofrequency lesioning of sensory branches of the obturator and femoral nerves is an alternative treatment in patients with hip joint pain, especially in those where operation is not applicable.
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ranking = 0.042144449924207
keywords = block, nerve
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6/79. Neuropathic complications of mandibular implant surgery: review and case presentations.

    Injuries to trigeminal nerves during endosseous implant placement in the posterior mandible appear to occur acutely in approximately 5-15 of cases, with permanent neurosensory disorder resulting in approximately 8%. Nerve lateralization holds even higher risks from epineurial damage or ischaemic stretching. Neuropathy from implant compression and drill punctures can result in neuroma formation of all types, and in some cases precipitate centralized pain syndrome. Two patterns of clinical neuropathy are seen to result; hypoaesthesias with impaired sensory function, often seen with phantom pain, and hyperaesthesias with minimal sensory impairment but presence of much-evoked pain phenomena. The clinician must differentiate, through careful patient questioning and stimulus-response testing, those patients who are undergoing satisfactory spontaneous nerve recovery from those who are developing dysfunctional or dysaesthetic syndromes. Acute nerve injuries are treated with fixture and nerve decompression and combined with supportive anti-inflammatory, narcotic and anti-convulsant therapy. Surgical exploration, neuroma resection and microsurgical repair, with or without nerve grafting, are indicated when unsatisfactory spontaneous sensory return has been demonstrated, and in the presence of function impairment and intractable pain.
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ranking = 0.0093713974686633
keywords = nerve
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7/79. A portable mechanical pump providing over four days of patient-controlled analgesia by perineural infusion at home.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Local anesthetics infused via perineural catheters postoperatively decrease opioid use and side effects while improving analgesia. However, the infusion pumps described for outpatients have been limited by several factors, including the following: limited local anesthetic reservoir volume, fixed infusion rate, and inability to provide patient-controlled doses of local anesthetic in combination with a continuous infusion. We describe a patient undergoing open rotator cuff repair who was discharged home with an interscalene perineural catheter and a mechanical infusion pump that allowed a variable rate of continuous infusion, as well as patient-controlled boluses of local anesthetic for over 4 days. CASE REPORT: A 77-year-old woman, who had previously required a 3-day hospital admission for acute postoperative pain following an open repair of her left rotator cuff, presented for an open repair of her contralateral rotator cuff. Preoperatively she received an interscalene block and perineural catheter. After the procedure she was discharged home with a portable pump that infused ropivacaine continuously at a rate of 6 mL/h and allowed a 2-mL patient-controlled bolus every 20 minutes (550-mL reservoir). The basal infusion was decreased, as tolerated, by having the patient reprogram the pump with instructions given over the telephone. Without the use of any oral opioids, the patient scored her surgical pain 0 to 1 (on a scale of 0 to 10) while at rest and 2 to 3 for 2 physical therapy sessions during which she used the bolus function to reinforce her analgesia. After 98 hours of infusion, the patient's husband removed the catheter with instructions given over the telephone, and her subsequent surgical pain was treated with oral opioids. CONCLUSION: Continuous, perineural local anesthetic infusions are possible on an ambulatory basis for multiple days using a portable, programmable pump that provides a variable basal infusion rate, patient-controlled boluses, and a large anesthetic reservoir.
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ranking = 0.010763687746574
keywords = block
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8/79. Opioid-free analgesia following total knee arthroplasty--a multimodal approach using continuous lumbar plexus (psoas compartment) block, acetaminophen, and ketorolac.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Traditionally, postoperative analgesia following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been provided by neuraxial or peripheral regional techniques with supplemental administration of opioids. We report an alternative method of postoperative pain management for patients undergoing TKA in whom the use of systemic or neuraxial opioids may result in significant side effects. CASE REPORT: A 74-year-old woman with a history of protracted nausea and vomiting after systemic and neuraxial opioid administration presented for left total knee arthroplasty. A spinal anesthetic with postoperative continuous lumbar plexus (psoas) analgesia was planned. A quadriceps motor response was elicited and a 20-gauge catheter was advanced through an 18-gauge insulated Tuohy needle into the psoas sheath. After 30 mL of bupivacaine 0.5% with 100 microg clonidine was administered through the psoas catheter, a spinal anesthetic (2 mL 0.5% bupivacaine at the L2-3 interspace) was performed. A continuous psoas infusion of 0.2% bupivacaine with 2 microg/mL clonidine at 8 mL/h was initiated in the recovery room. The psoas infusion was subsequently changed to 0.2% bupivacaine without clonidine and the rate increased to 10 mL/h. Supplemental analgesia with oral acetaminophen 1 g every 4 to 6 hours alternating with intravenous ketorolac 15 mg every 6 hours provided satisfactory analgesia, with visual analog scale (VAS) scores of 0 to 2 at rest and 3 to 4 with movement. The psoas catheter was removed 48 hours postoperatively because of prolongation of the prothrombin time. VAS scores remained 0 to 3 throughout the remainder of her hospitalization. CONCLUSION: A multimodal approach consisting of continuous lumbar plexus (psoas) block and nonopioid analgesics successfully provided postoperative pain relief in our patient and facilitated her physical rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty.
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ranking = 0.053818438732869
keywords = block
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9/79. Sympathetic activity-mediated neuropathic facial pain following simple tooth extraction: a case report.

    This is a report of a case of sympathetic activity-mediated neuropathic facial pain induced by a traumatic trigeminal nerve injury and by varicella zoster virus infection, following a simple tooth extraction. The patient had undergone extraction of the right lower third molar at a local dental clinic, and soon after the tooth extraction, she became aware of spontaneous pain in the right ear, right temporal region, and in the tooth socket. At our initial examination 30 days after the tooth extraction, the healing of the tooth socket was normal; however, the patient had a tingling and burning sensation (dysesthesia) and spontaneous pain of the right lower lip and the right temporal region, both of which were exacerbated by non-noxious stimuli (allodynia). The patient also showed paralysis of the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve, taste dysfunction, and increased varicella zoster serum titers. A diagnostic stellate ganglion block (SGB) 45 days after the tooth extraction using one percent lidocaine markedly alleviated the dysesthesia and allodynia. These symptoms are characteristic of neuropathic pain with sympathetic interaction. The patient was successfully treated with SGB and a tricyclic antidepressant.
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ranking = 0.014512246734039
keywords = block, nerve
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10/79. Innovation and surgical techniques: endoscopic resection of cervical branchiogenic cysts.

    The recent advent of endoscopic procedures has compelled both plastic and neck and head surgeons to reconsider the conventional methods by which the excision of cervical congenital cystic is classically achieved.An endoscopic approach for excision of the cervical congenital cystic is described. This procedure is anatomically safe and can be made with minimal morbidity through a small transcervical incision.Both specific instruments and solid anatomical knowledge are necessary to perform a safe and efficient cystic endoscopic excision.The essential surgical steps are as follows: 1. Minimal incision placed in natural cervical wrinkle over the dome of the cyst; 2. Intracystic or extracystic dissection; 3. Identification and protection of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, spinal nerve, hypoglossi nerve, and posterior belly of digastric muscle; 4. Careful dissection of the posterior surface of the cyst, avoiding injury on the carotid vessels and internal jugular vein.Eight patients were operated on with this technique and they were very pleased with postoperative comfort and aesthetic results. Inconspicuous scars and no complications were registered.With advanced endoscopic instruments and the development of new surgical technique and surgeon experience, the endoscopic surgery can be the method of choice in cervical excision of branchiogenic cysts.
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ranking = 0.0037485589874653
keywords = nerve
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