Cases reported "Pain"

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1/45. Virtual reality as an adjunctive pain control during burn wound care in adolescent patients.

    For daily burn wound care procedures, opioid analgesics alone are often inadequate. Since most burn patients experience severe to excruciating pain during wound care, analgesics that can be used in addition to opioids are needed. This case report provides the first evidence that entering an immersive virtual environment can serve as a powerful adjunctive, nonpharmacologic analgesic. Two patients received virtual reality (VR) to distract them from high levels of pain during wound care. The first was a 16-year-old male with a deep flash burn on his right leg requiring surgery and staple placement. On two occasions, the patient spent some of his wound care in VR, and some playing a video game. On a 100 mm scale, he provided sensory and affective pain ratings, anxiety and subjective estimates of time spent thinking about his pain during the procedure. For the first session of wound care, these scores decreased 80 mm, 80 mm, 58 mm, and 93 mm, respectively, during VR treatment compared with the video game control condition. For the second session involving staple removal, scores also decreased. The second patient was a 17-year-old male with 33.5% total body surface area deep flash burns on his face, neck, back, arms, hands and legs. He had difficulty tolerating wound care pain with traditional opioids alone and showed dramatic drops in pain ratings during VR compared to the video game (e.g. a 47 mm drop in pain intensity during wound care). We contend that VR is a uniquely attention-capturing medium capable of maximizing the amount of attention drawn away from the 'real world', allowing patients to tolerate painful procedures. These preliminary results suggest that immersive VR merits more attention as a potentially viable form of treatment for acute pain.
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ranking = 1
keywords = acute pain
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2/45. Acute painful diabetic neuropathy: two patients with recent insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Two young men developed an acute painful peripheral neuropathy a few weeks after being diagnosed to suffer from an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In both cases, peripheral nerve biopsy exhibited a few features of acute axonal degeneration. Additionally, in the first case there was a lymphocytic infiltrate around an endoneurial capillary, and in the second case there were several mast cells in the endoneurium of every fascicle examined. A few months later, the acute pain had disappeared in both cases. Only a few cases of acute painful diabetic neuropathy have been reported so far. A vascular origin seems unlikely and metabolic disorders are probably due to a contemporary severe weight loss. An auto-immune mechanism is an alternative explanation.
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ranking = 3
keywords = acute pain
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3/45. Fatal lipid embolism following intraarterial angiography at an early stage of arteriosclerosis.

    Intraarterial angiography was performed on a patient with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (Fontaine IIb). No relevant risk factors were known, and a previous angiography had been undertaken without incident. After administration of contrast medium, the patient complained of acute pain in the lower abdomen and both legs, and a sudden rise in blood pressure was observed. The patient subsequently lost consciousness and died within 1.5 h. Postmortem examination showed that death was due to peripheral atheromatous microembolism of lipids, and not cholesterol as is usual in these cases. The differential diagnosis is discussed and a review of the literature is presented.
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ranking = 1
keywords = acute pain
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4/45. A case of intoxication after a bite by Latrodectus tredecimguttatus.

    A case of intoxication in Southern bulgaria after a bite from the venomous spider Latrodectus tredecimguttatus is reported. The development of both local (acute pain, itching erythema, paraesthesiae in the area of the bite) and general (weakness, headache, dizziness, fever, vomiting, myalgia, muscle cramps) symptoms, which passed relatively easily, is described. The clinical picture and treatment are briefly commented on.
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ranking = 1
keywords = acute pain
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5/45. seizures with intravenous codeine phosphate.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe an adverse effect with intravenous codeine in a chid diagnosed with sickle cell anemia. CASE SUMMARY: A seven-year-old boy with sickle cell anemia was admitted to the emergency department with severe pain unresponsive to high doses of oral acetaminophen; subsequently, intravenous codeine phosphate was administered. The patient immediately developed a tonic-clonic seizure, which was treated with intravenous diazepam and naloxone. DISCUSSION: seizures associated with the intravenous administration of codeine phosphate have not been extensively reported in the literature, and special precautions for using the parenteral route for this drug have been vague and limited. Because of the frequent need for acute pain control in children with sicke cell crisis, they may be exposed to this type of reaction when intravenous narcotics are administered. The need for clear guidelines regarding the drug's appropriate parenteral dosing and administration is essential. CONCLUSIONS: codeine phosphate-induced seizures are not common. The need for special instructions for its intravenous administration may prevent this type of reaction, especially in patients in need of acute pain control requiring intravenous narcotics.
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ranking = 2
keywords = acute pain
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6/45. Managing cancer and noncancer chronic pain in critical care settings. knowledge and skills every nurse needs to know.

    nurses and physicians caring for people with all types of pain are responsible for providing effective pain management in all clinical settings. Although the principles for managing all types of pain are similar, people with chronic pain have special needs to sustain optimal analgesia in critical care settings. nursing practice must be guided by national standards, guidelines, and recommendations for managing chronic and acute pain. Pain assessment, reassessment, and follow-up; titration of medications to individual responses; aggressive management of side effects; prevention of pain; and routine evaluation of the effectiveness of the plan are basic skills for all health professionals. Every person's baseline level of pain must be determined, and preexisting interventions for pain relief must be maintained to assure continuity of care. chronic pain complicates clinical problems and could have a profound effect on patient outcome. Managing chronic pain improves function, outcome, and quality of life. The knowledge, skills, medications, nondrug interventions, and technology are available to manage nearly all types of pain. Pain relief is a responsibility of all health care professionals. Our patients deserve our best efforts to optimize their comfort, and we must be accountable.
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ranking = 1
keywords = acute pain
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7/45. Successful use of oral methadone after failure of intravenous morphine and ketamine.

    We describe an opioid-tolerant patient with severe acute pain which was unrelieved by morphine and ketamine via intravenous patient-controlled analgesia, but almost totally relieved by methadone. In the previous 24 hours, 509 mg of intravenous morphine and 769 mg of ketamine had been used and this was replaced by 200 mg of oral methadone. This implies that the success of methadone in morphine tolerant patients chiefly involves factors other than its role as an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, and that methadone should be considered as a replacement for morphine when the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist ketamine has proved ineffective.
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ranking = 1
keywords = acute pain
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8/45. fentanyl-associated syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

    A 43-year-old woman with advanced pulmonary blastoma was admitted for worsening back pain. Her drug regimen included hydromorphone and benazepril. On admission, hydromorphone patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) was started for acute pain control and dexamethasone for possible cord compression. Baseline laboratory tests were unremarkable, but magnetic resonance imaging revealed T3 and L3 lesions. Irradiation was started with improvement in her pain. In anticipation of discharge, a fentanyl transdermal patch was given, and PCA was tapered. Two days later, the patient became progressively confused and fell. neurologic examination and computed brain tomography were normal. Her serum sodium was 119 mEq/L (normal 136-144 mEq/L) and was confirmed on repeat testing, urine sodium was 194 mEq/L, and urine and serum osmolalities were 554 mOsm/kg (normal 300-900 mOsm/kg) and 245 mOsm/kg (normal 280-300 mOsm/kg), respectively, consistent with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Fluids were restricted, hydromorphone PCA was started again, and fentanyl was discontinued. After 36 hours, her serum sodium increased to 136 mEq/L. Because we were unsure whether the fentanyl or her cancer was causative and were unable to find any published reports of fentanyl-associated SIADH, we readministered the fentanyl patch 2 days later. Within 48 hours, serum sodium dropped to 123 mEq/L. fentanyl was discontinued, fluids were restricted, and 3% saline was started. Her serum sodium increased to 132 mEq/L in 48 hours. The patient was prescribed oral hydromorphone and benazepril and was discharged. The repeated temporal relationship between the administration of fentanyl and the onset of SIADH strongly implicates fentanyl as the causative agent in this case. To our knowledge, this is the first report of fentanyl-associated SIADH.
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ranking = 1
keywords = acute pain
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9/45. Pain in pressure ulcers.

    Integrating pain management into a treatment paradigm for pressure ulcers can lead to improved outcomes. An approach to wound bed preparation that addresses the cause and patient-centered concerns--as well as local wound care factors of moisture balance, debridement, and bacterial balance--can be integrated with the Krasner model of chronic wound pain. The risk factors for pressure ulcers are well known, but pain may be an important contributor to immobility and the development of pressure ulcers. Pain is also an important signal of wound-related infections. Strategies must be developed to control the cyclic acute pain of dressing changes and the noncyclic acute pain of wound debridement. spinal cord injured and elderly, cognitively impaired patients with pressure ulcers present special challenges in pain management.
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ranking = 2
keywords = acute pain
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10/45. benzodiazepines for acute pain in children.

    When pediatric pain is refractory and unresponsive to appropriate use of analgesic agents, there might be additional physical or psychologic dimensions of the pain that are not addressed by the analgesics. In addition to appropriate analgesic therapy, the psychologic needs of the child should be directly addressed and appropriate adjunctive physical modalities employed. Although benzodiazepines lack direct analgesic effects, they can reduce the distress associated with acute pain states by decreasing anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms that can be associated with acute pain. Intermediate or long-acting benzodiazepines in modest doses can be useful adjunctive agents when used short term for the treatment of selected acute pain complaints. In the highly distressed school-age child or adolescent with pain complaints relatively unresponsive to appropriate care, judicious use of benzodiazepines is worthy of consideration.
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ranking = 7
keywords = acute pain
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