Cases reported "Pain"

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1/157. Muscle pain as a prominent feature of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD): four illustrative case reports.

    Clinical studies of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) rarely report muscle pain as a significant feature of the condition. We report four adult patients with FSHD in whom muscle pain was a presenting complaint and remains their most disabling symptom. These four patients were investigated using a pain questionnaire and diary. Inflammatory and metabolic causes of muscle pain were sought by muscle biopsy and a range of biochemical investigations. All patients reported between three and seven different pains of varying site and nature. None of the group had more than one painfree day per month and all complained of disturbed sleep. While some pains could potentially be attributed to postural problems, others were clearly myalgic in nature, though most often not specifically exercise-related. These myalgic pains could be particularly difficult to control. Results of metabolic investigations and muscle biopsy revealed no clue to the pathogenesis of these pains and there was no evidence for any exceptional inflammatory response. We believe that pain in FSHD is an under-reported but significant symptom and that further work is necessary to determine its prevalence, understand its cause and provide effective treatment.
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2/157. sympathetic nervous system and pain: a clinical reappraisal.

    The target article discusses various aspects of the relationship between the sympathetic system and pain. To this end, the patients under study are divided into three groups. In the first group, called "reflex sympathetic dystrophy" (RSD), the syndrome can be characterized by a triad of autonomic, motor, and sensory symptoms, which occur in a distally generalized distribution. The pain is typically felt deeply and diffusely, has an orthostatic component, and is suppressed by the ischemia test. Under those circumstances, the pain is likely to respond to sympatholytic interventions. In a second group, called "sympathetically maintained pain" (SMP) syndrome, the principal symptoms are spontaneous pain, which is felt superficially and has no orthostatic component, and allodynia. These symptoms, typically confined to the zone of a lesioned nerve, may also be relieved by sympathetic blocks. Since the characteristics of the pain differ between RSD and SMP, the underlying kind of sympathetic-sensory coupling may also vary between these cases. A very small third group of patients exhibits symptoms of both RSD and SMP. The dependence or independence of pain on sympathetic function reported in most published studies seems to be questionable because the degree of technical success of the block remains uncertain. Therefore, pain should not be reported as sympathetic function independent until the criteria for a complete sympathetic block have been established and satisfied.
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3/157. vulvodynia and vulvar vestibulitis: challenges in diagnosis and management.

    vulvodynia is a problem most family physicians can expect to encounter. It is a syndrome of unexplained vulvar pain, frequently accompanied by physical disabilities, limitation of daily activities, sexual dysfunction and psychologic distress. The patient's vulvar pain usually has an acute onset and, in most cases, becomes a chronic problem lasting months to years. The pain is often described as burning or stinging, or a feeling of rawness or irritation. vulvodynia may have multiple causes, with several subsets, including cyclic vulvovaginitis, vulvar vestibulitis syndrome, essential (dysesthetic) vulvodynia and vulvar dermatoses. Evaluation should include a thorough history and physical examination as well as cultures for bacteria and fungus, KOH microscopic examination and biopsy of any suspicious areas. Proper treatment mandates that the correct type of vulvodynia be identified. Depending on the specific diagnosis, treatment may include fluconazole, calcium citrate, tricyclic antidepressants, topical corticosteroids, physical therapy with biofeedback, surgery or laser therapy. Since vulvodynia is often a chronic condition, regular medical follow-up and referral to a support group are helpful for most patients.
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4/157. Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction presenting as a painful crisis in a patient with sickle cell anemia.

    CONTEXT: patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are frequently transfused with red blood cells (RBC). Recently we reported that the calculated risk of RBC alloimmunization per transfussed unit in Brazilian patients with SCA is 1.15%. We describe a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR) presenting as a painful crisis in a patient with SCA. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old Brazilian female with homozygous SCA was admitted for a program of partial exchange transfusion prior to cholecystectomy. Her blood group was O RhD positive and no atypical RBC alloantibody was detected using the indirect antiglobulin technique. Pre-transfusional hemoglobin (Hb) was 8.7 g/dL and isovolumic partial exchange transfusion was performed using 4 units of ABO compatible packed RBC. Five days after the last transfusion she developed generalized joint pain and fever of 39 degrees C. Her Hb level dropped from 12.0 g/dL to 9.3 g/dL and the unconjugated bilirrubin level rose to 27 mmol/L. She was jaundiced and had hemoglobinuria. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed 48.7% HbS, 46.6% HbA1, 2.7% HbA2, and 2.0% HbF. The patient's extended RBC phenotype was CDe, K-k , Kp(a-b ), Fy(a-b-), M N s , Le(a b-), Di(a-). An RBC alloantibody with specificity to the Rh system (anti-c, titer 1:16.384) was identified by the indirect antiglobulin test. The Rh phenotype of the RBC used in the last packed RBC transfusion was CcDEe. The patient was discharged, asymptomatic, 7 days after admission.
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5/157. abdominal pain in children.

    Chronic vague abdominal pain is an extremely common complaint in children over 5 years, with a peak incidence in the 8 to 10 year group. In over 90 per cent of the cases no serious underlying organic disease will be discovered. Most disease states can be ruled out by a careful history, a meticulous physical examination, and a few simple laboratory tests such as urinalysis, sedimentation rate, hemoglobin, white blood count determination, and examination of a blood smear. If organic disease is present there are often clues in the history and the examination. The kidney is often the culprit--an intravenous pyelogram should be done if disease is suspected. barium enema is the next most valuable test. Duodenal ulcers and abdominal epilepsy are rare and are over-diagnosed. If no organic cause is found, the parents must be convinced that the pain is real, and that "functional" does not mean "imaginary." This is best explained by comparing with "headache"--the headache resulting from stress and tension hurts every bit as much as the headache caused by a brain tumor or other intracranial pathology. Having convinced the patient and his parents that no serious disease exists, no further investigation should be carried out unless new signs or symptoms appear. The child must be returned to full activity immediately.
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6/157. pain management of junctional epidermolysis bullosa in an 11-year-Old boy.

    epidermolysis bullosa is a group of hereditary blistering disorders for which there is no definitive therapy. Wound care is an important component of management. Regular dressing changes are required to protect blistered and eroded skin, and to prevent secondary infection and sepsis. These dressing changes can be very painful for patients with extensive erosions. We report our experience of pain management in an 11-year-old boy with severe junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Amitryptiline and cognitive behavioral techniques were effective in relieving chronic pain and discomfort. Oral midazolam 0.33 mg/kg administered 20 minutes prior to baths and dressing changes substantially improved his tolerance of wound care.
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7/157. chronic pain and distress in older people: a cluster analysis.

    chronic pain represents a major health problem among older people. The aims of the present study were to: (i) identify various profiles of pain and distress experiences among older patients; and (ii) compare whether background variables, sense of coherence, functional ability and experiences of interventions aimed at reducing pain and distress varied among the patient profiles. Interviews were carried out with 42 older patients. A cluster analysis yielded three clusters, each representing a different profile of patients. Case illustrations are provided for each profile. There were no differences between the clusters, regarding intensity and duration of pain. One profile, with subjects of advanced age, showed a decreased functional ability and favourable scores in most of the categories of pain and distress. Another profile of patients showed favourable mean scores in all categories. The third cluster of patients showed unfavourable scores in most categories of pain and distress. There appears to be a need to treat the three groups of patients in different ways in the caring situation.
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8/157. chondroblastoma: an unusual cause of knee pain in the adolescent.

    chondroblastoma is a rare, benign bone tumor that may mimic an orthopedic infection. Characteristic clinical features include specific radiographic findings, predilection for the adolescent age group, and long bone epiphyseal involvement. This case of chondroblastoma is unusual because of aggressive findings on radiographic studies which underscore the need to obtain hip radiographs on adolescent patients with knee pain.
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9/157. The treatment of Paget's bone disease with sodium ethidronate.

    Of 58 patients with Paget's disease treated with disodium ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP) in doses of 20 and 10 mg/kg/day, a group of 20 patients with the oligostotic form of the disease showed a significantly greater incidence of complications, such as worsening of bone pains, when compared with a group of 38 patients with the polyostotic disease (P less than 0.05). The group of 32 patients that received 20 mg/kg/day showed a greater although not significant incidence of clinical complications than the group of 26 patients treated with 10 mg/kg/day. Bone biopsies performed in one polyostotic and three oligostotic cases who suffered episodes of bone pain worsening during treatment with 20 mg/kg/day disclosed a severe osteomalacia. Both groups treated with 20 and 10 mg/kg showed a highly significant decrease of urinary hydroxyproline (THP) excretion and of serum alkaline phosphatase (P less than 0.01) after two and six months of treatment although the trend comparison between doses was not significant. It is suggested that the dose of EHDP should be related to the extent of the disease.
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10/157. Reactive arthritis associated with typhoid vaccination in travelers: report of two cases with negative HLA-B27.

    As international travel to developing countries increases, more people seek medical advice concerning food and water-borne diseases, including typhoid fever. Prevention of typhoid fever in high-risk groups (travelers to endemic areas, laboratory workers and household contacts of typhoid carriers) should rely primarily on prevention of exposure. However, immunization is an important adjunct. The decision to immunize against typhoid fever should be individualized, taking into account the benefits versus the risk of possible adverse reactions. Cases of reactive arthritis have been associated with the heat-phenol inactivated 'whole cell' parenteral vaccine, but to our knowledge reactive arthritis has not been previously reported with the oral form (Ty21a). This is a report of HLA-B27 negative reactive arthritis occurring in two travelers after the administration of oral Ty21a typhoid vaccine.
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