Cases reported "Pain"

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1/10. Presacral tumor associated with the Currarino triad in an adolescent.

    A 17-year-old woman presented with pain over the sacral region. Plain radiographs of the sacrum demonstrated a bony deformity of the sacrococcygeal region in the shape of a scimitar. magnetic resonance imaging showed a cystic mass of the presacral region which appeared to be continuous with the dural sac. An anteroposterior view myelogram revealed caudal elongation of the dural sac, and on the lateral view it was recognized as an anterior meningocele. At surgery, we confirmed a connection between the presacral mass and the rectum. In light of the combination of a sacral bony deformity, presacral mass including meningocele, and mass-rectum connection, we made the diagnosis of the Currarino triad, which is a rare complex of congenital caudal anomalies. The patient underwent excision of the presacral mass. Histologic examination of the resected specimen revealed features of an epidermoid cyst.
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2/10. Successful treatment of post traumatic stress disorder and chronic pain with paraspinal square wave stimulation.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if Paraspinal Square Wave Stimulation (PSWS) is effective in treating Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and or chronic pain. METHOD: PSWS is applied to the paraspinal area from the craniocervical junction to the lower sacrum. RESULTS: Patient achieved dramatic relief from PTSD, unequaled by any previous pharmacologic or psychotherapies. The chronic pain is almost completely disappeared, unlike any previous therapies. CONCLUSION: PSWS is the treatment of choice for this patient with PTSD and chronic pain. This patient appears to have completely recovered from PTSD, unlike any other study reported so far.
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keywords = sacrum
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3/10. Sacral hemangioblastoma in a patient with von hippel-lindau disease. Case report and review of the literature.

    Hemangioblastomas are histologically benign neoplasms that occur sporadically or as part of von hippel-lindau disease. Hemangioblastomas may occur anywhere along the neuraxis, but sacral hemangioblastomas are extremely rare. To identify features that will help guide the operative and clinical management of these lesions, the authors describe the management of a large von hippel-lindau disease-associated sacral hemangioblastoma and review the literature. The authors present the case of a 38-year-old woman with von hippel-lindau disease and a 10-year history of progressive back pain, as well as left lower-extremity pain and numbness. Neurological examination revealed decreased sensation in the left S-1 and S-2 dermatomes. magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large enhancing lesion in the sacral region, with associated erosion of the sacrum. The patient underwent arteriography and embolization of the tumor and then resection. The histopathological diagnosis was consistent with hemangioblastoma and showed intrafascicular tumor infiltration of the S-2 nerve root. At 1-year follow-up examination, pain had resolved and numbness improved. Sacral nerve root hemangioblastomas may be safely removed in most patients, resulting in stabilization or improvement in symptomatology. Generally, hemangioblastomas of the sacral nerve roots should be removed when they cause symptoms. Because they originate from the nerve root, the nerve root from which the hemangioblastoma originates must be sacrificed to achieve complete resection.
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keywords = sacrum
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4/10. osteochondroma of the sacrum: a case report and review of the literature.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report and review of the literature. OBJECTIVES: To describe the en bloc excision and postoperative outcome of an osteochondroma of the sacrum compressing the neural elements, as well as review the literature on solitary osteochondroma involving the sacrum. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: osteochondroma is the most common primary benign bone tumor. However, this tumor rarely involves the spine and even more rarely involves the sacrum. To the best of our knowledge, en bloc excision of a solitary osteochondroma of the sacrum has not been previously reported. methods: An 11-year-old male presented with disabling radicular pain in the right lower extremity. Radiologic studies showed a lesion occurring from the sacral lamina that was compressing the S2 nerve root. The tumor was excised en bloc through a posterior approach. The cavitary defect within the sacrum was reconstructed with crushed cancellous allograft and demineralized bone matrix putty. A literature review of solitary sacral osteochondroma was conducted of the English-based medical literature. RESULTS: Histologic studies showed the tumor to be an osteochondroma. After surgery, pain was completely relieved, and neurologic function was normal. At the last follow-up, the sacroiliac joint remained intact, and there was no evidence of local recurrence. A literature review revealed 4 previous cases addressing osteochondroma of the sacrum. CONCLUSIONS: osteochondroma is a rare primary benign bone tumor that can occur in the sacrum. Local contamination and, therefore, the likelihood of local recurrence, are decreased when an en bloc, as opposed to an intralesional, excision is performed.
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ranking = 11
keywords = sacrum
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5/10. Piriformis syndrome: a rational approach to management.

    Although rarely recognized, the piriformis syndrome appears to be a common cause of buttock and leg pain as a result of injury to the piriformis muscle. Four cases representing a broad spectrum of presentations are described here. The major findings include buttock tenderness extending from the sacrum to the greater trochanter and piriformis tenderness on rectal or pelvic examination. Symptoms are aggravated by prolonged hip flexion, adduction, and internal rotation, in the absence of low back or hip findings. Minor findings may include leg length discrepancy, weak hip abductors, and pain on resisted hip abduction in the sitting position. Myofascial involvement of related muscles and lumbar facet syndromes may occur concurrently. The diagnosis is primarily clinical as no investigations have proved definitive. The role of MRI of the piriformis muscle is assessed and other investigative tools are discussed. A rational management schema is demonstrated: (1) underlying biomechanical factors and associated conditions should be corrected; (2) the patient is instructed in a home program of prolonged piriformis muscle stretching which may be augmented in physical therapy by preceding ultrasound or Fluori-methane (dichlorodifluoromethane and trichloromonofluoromethane spray); (3) a trial of up to three steroid injections is attempted; and (4) if all these measures fail, consideration should be given to surgical sciatic nerve exploration and piriformis release.
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keywords = sacrum
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6/10. Insufficiency fractures of the pelvis that simulate metastatic disease.

    Insufficiency fractures of the pelvis, which almost always occur in elderly women with osteoporosis, are often misinterpreted as metastatic disease. The initial symptom of such fractures is severe pain unassociated with an obvious history of trauma. The typical sites of involvement are the sacrum, the iliac bones, and the pubis. The plain film appearance of the sacral and iliac fractures is usually subtle and easily overlooked, and bone scans will show the abnormal areas more readily. The existence of multiple fractures not only in the pelvis but also in the vertebrae and ribs should suggest the diagnosis of insufficiency-type stress fractures. Computed tomography can exclude the presence of a destructive process and an associated soft tissue mass, as would be seen in metastatic disease. If insufficiency fractures are identified in the typical anatomic locations, bone biopsy is unnecessary.
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ranking = 1
keywords = sacrum
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7/10. Pubic pain syndrome in sportsmen: comparison of radiographic and scintigraphic findings.

    We studied 32 cases of pubic pain in sportsmen and compared the radiographic and scintigraphic findings. Six case histories are presented in detail. The pubis/sacrum uptake ratio obtained by the use of scan techniques appears to be a useful parameter for following the evolution of the pain.
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ranking = 1
keywords = sacrum
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8/10. Hydatid cyst of the lumbosacral spine with large pelvic mass.

    A rare case of hydatid cyst of the lumbosacral spine, causing extensive destruction of the sacrum and a large pelvis mass, is reported; a cutaneous fistula from the pelvic cavity to the posterior lumbar region was also present. The patient was studied by computerized tomography and operated on by combined anterior and posterior approach. The sacral localization of the spinal hydatidosis and its extension into the pelvic cavity are unusual. CT and MR allow a good definition of the bone destruction and the abdominal and pelvic extensions. Radical removal of spinal hydatid cysts may be rarely accomplished, because of the extensive bone invasion, and multiple recurrences, requiring repeating operations, occur in most cases.
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ranking = 1
keywords = sacrum
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9/10. Intraosseous glomus tumor of the spine. Case report and review of the literature.

    The authors report a case of glomus tumor originating within the lumbar spine. Glomus tumors of intraosseous origin are rare, with the only case reported in the spine arising in the sacrum. The patient presented with the solitary complaint of radiating back pain that resolved postoperatively. The histopathological and radiographic findings are reviewed. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the first case report of a glomus tumor of the spine originating above the sacrum.
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keywords = sacrum
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10/10. Total sacrectomy and Galveston L-rod reconstruction for malignant neoplasms. Technical note.

    Although radical resection is the best treatment for malignant sacral tumors, total sacrectomy for such tumors has been performed in only a few instances. Total sacral resection requires reconstruction of the pelvic ring plus establishment of a bilateral union between the lumbar spine and iliac bone. This technique is illustrated in two patients harboring large, painful, sacral giant-cell tumors that were unresponsive to prior treatment. These patients were treated with complete en bloc resection of the sacrum and complex iliolumbar reconstruction/stabilization and fusion. Surgery was performed in two stages, the first consisting of a midline celiotomy, dissection of visceral/neural structures, and ligation of internal iliac vessels, followed by an anterior L5-S1 discectomy. The second stage consisted of mobilization of an inferiorly based myocutaneous rectus abdominis pedicle flap for wound closure, followed by an L-5 laminectomy, bilateral L-5 foraminotomy, ligation of the thecal sac, division of sacral nerve roots, and transection of the ilia lateral to the tumor and sacroiliac joints. Placement of the instrumentation required segmental fixation of the lumbar spine from L-3 down by means of pedicle screws and the establishment of a bilateral liaison between the lumbar spine and the ilia by using the Galveston L-rod technique. The pelvic ring was then reestablished by means of a threaded rod connecting left and right ilia. Both autologous (posterior iliac crest) and allograft bone were used for fusion, and a tibial allograft strut was placed between the remaining ilia. The patients were immobilized for 8 weeks postoperatively and underwent progressive rehabilitation. At the 1-year follow-up review, one patient could walk unassisted, and the other ambulated independently using a cane. Both patients controlled bowel function satisfactorily with laxatives and diet and could maintain continence but required self-catheterization for bladder emptying. The authors conclude that in selected patients, total sacrectomy represents an acceptable surgical procedure that can offer not only effective local pain control, but also a potential cure, while preserving satisfactory ambulatory capacity and neurological function.
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ranking = 1
keywords = sacrum
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