Cases reported "Pain"

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1/558. sympathetic nervous system and pain: a clinical reappraisal.

    The target article discusses various aspects of the relationship between the sympathetic system and pain. To this end, the patients under study are divided into three groups. In the first group, called "reflex sympathetic dystrophy" (RSD), the syndrome can be characterized by a triad of autonomic, motor, and sensory symptoms, which occur in a distally generalized distribution. The pain is typically felt deeply and diffusely, has an orthostatic component, and is suppressed by the ischemia test. Under those circumstances, the pain is likely to respond to sympatholytic interventions. In a second group, called "sympathetically maintained pain" (SMP) syndrome, the principal symptoms are spontaneous pain, which is felt superficially and has no orthostatic component, and allodynia. These symptoms, typically confined to the zone of a lesioned nerve, may also be relieved by sympathetic blocks. Since the characteristics of the pain differ between RSD and SMP, the underlying kind of sympathetic-sensory coupling may also vary between these cases. A very small third group of patients exhibits symptoms of both RSD and SMP. The dependence or independence of pain on sympathetic function reported in most published studies seems to be questionable because the degree of technical success of the block remains uncertain. Therefore, pain should not be reported as sympathetic function independent until the criteria for a complete sympathetic block have been established and satisfied.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nerve
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2/558. Radicular pain can be a symptom of elevated intracranial pressure.

    We report two patients with leptomeningeal metastatic disease, one from breast cancer and the other from a spinal cord glioma, who developed episodic elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), each episode accompanied by the gradual onset of severe spine and radicular pain. Symptoms of pain promptly and completely resolved with opening of the on-off valve of each patient's ventriculoperitoneal shunt. It is theorized that the patients' radicular pain was caused by nerve root ischemia secondary to elevated ICP.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nerve
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3/558. Complete avulsion of the distal posterior interosseous nerve during wrist arthroscopy: a possible cause of persistent pain after arthroscopy.

    A case of avulsion of the distal posterior interosseous nerve during wrist arthroscopy is presented. Surgeons unaware of this entity may attribute persistent middorsal wrist pain to the underlying disease rather than to iatrogenic damage to the distal posterior interosseous nerve.
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ranking = 6
keywords = nerve
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4/558. Treatment of painful skin ulcers with topical opioids.

    Recent research suggests that opioid receptors on peripheral nerve terminals may play an important role in the modulation of pain. Clinical applications of this knowledge have been rather slow to evolve. We describe a consecutive series of nine patients with painful skin ulcers due to a variety of medical conditions. All patients were treated with a topical morphine-infused gel dressing. Seven of the nine patients experienced substantial and another experienced a lesser (but still significant) degree of analgesia. The ninth reported no relief, but his wound was not an open ulcer. Discussion centers on the practical application of this development in the large number of patients with painful skin lesions.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nerve
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5/558. Low power laser therapy and analgesic action.

    OBJECTIVE: The semiconductor or laser diode (GaAs, 904 nm) is the most appropriate choice in pain reduction therapy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Low-power density laser acts on the prostaglandin (PG) synthesis, increasing the change of PGG2 and PGH2 into PG12 (also called prostacyclin, or epoprostenol). The last is the main product of the arachidonic acid into the endothelial cells and into the smooth muscular cells of vessel walls, that have a vasodilating and anti-inflammatory action. methods: Treatment was performed on 372 patients (206 women and 166 men) during the period between May 1987 and January 1997. The patients, whose ages ranged from 25 to 70 years, with a mean age of 45 years, suffered from rheumatic, degenerative, and traumatic pathologies as well as cutaneous ulcers. The majority of patients had been seen by orthopedists and rheumatologists and had undergone x-ray examination. All patients had received drug-based treatment and/or physiotherapy with poor results; 5 patients had also been irradiated with He:Ne and CO2 lasers. Two-thirds were experiencing acute symptomatic pain, while the others suffered long-term pathology with recurrent crises. We used a pulsed diode laser, GaAs 904 nm wavelength once per day for 5 consecutive days, followed by a 2-day interval. The average number of applications was 12. We irradiated the trigger points, access points to the joint, and striated muscles adjacent to relevant nerve roots. RESULTS: We achieved very good results, especially in cases of symptomatic osteoarthritis of the cervical vertebrae, sport-related injuries, epicondylitis, and cutaneous ulcers, and with cases of osteoarthritis of the coxa. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with 904-nm diode laser has substantially reduced the symptoms as well as improved the quality of life of these patient, ultimately postponing the need for surgery.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nerve
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6/558. hyperalgesia with reduced laser evoked potentials in neuropathic pain.

    Nociceptive evoked potentials to laser stimuli (LEPs) are able to detect lesions of pain and temperature pathways at peripheral, spinal and supraspinal levels. It is commonly accepted that LEP attenuation correlates with the loss of pain and temperature sensations, while pathological heat-pain hypersensitivity has been associated with increased LEP amplitude. Here we present two patients in whom increased pain sensation (hyperalgesia) to laser stimuli was, on the contrary, associated to delayed, desynchronized and attenuated LEPs. Both patients experienced increased unpleasantness and affective reactions to laser, associated to poor ability to localize the stimulus. In both cases the results may be explained by an overactivation of the 'medial pain system', in one patient due to deafferentation of cortical sensory areas by a capsular lesion, and in the other to imbalance between A-delta and C fiber excitation due to peripheral nerve injury. Our results suggest that LEPs, as currently recorded, reflect the activity of a 'lateral' pain system subserved by rapidly conducting fibers. They may therefore, assess the sensory and cognitive dimensions of pain, but may not index adequately the affective-emotional aspects of pain sensation conveyed by the 'medial' pain system. The dissociation between pain sensation and cortical EPs deserve to be added to the current semiology of LEPs, as the presence of abnormal pain to laser on the background of reduced LEPs substantiates the neuropathic nature of the pain.
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ranking = 2.6102371674706
keywords = nerve injury, nerve, injury
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7/558. The longer term effect of pulsed radiofrequency for neuropathic pain.

    pulse radiofrequency has been recently described as a technique to apply a relatively high voltage near a nerve but without the usual effects of a rise in temperature or subsequent nerve injury. In this set of case reports, the effect of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) is described in patients with neuropathic pain syndromes which have been poorly controlled with other oral and invasive treatments. Whilst anecdotal, the results have been remarkable and should encourage further research into this technique. Observations from the basic science tend to support the concept that PRF may induce some sort of long-term depression in the spinal cord.
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ranking = 3.6102371674706
keywords = nerve injury, nerve, injury
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8/558. Successful treatment of whiplash-type injury induced severe pain syndrome with epidural stimulation: a case report.

    Chronic severe cervico-facial pain syndrome associated with a whiplash-type injury was successfully treated with epidural spinal cord stimulation. The patient had been in pain for 9 years, responding temporarily only to stellate ganglion blocks. The patient has now been painless for 18 months. We have been unable to find a similar case reported in the literature to date.
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ranking = 2.255121912184
keywords = injury
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9/558. iliac artery pseudoaneurysm following renal transplantation presenting as lumbosacral plexopathy.

    A renal transplant patient developed chronic and progressive back and lower extremity pain followed by foot weakness. The correct diagnosis of lumbosacral plexopathy was made after electromyography and nerve conduction studies and the etiology of radiculopathy due to nerve root compression was excluded. This prompted further investigations that led to the discovery of a large internal iliac artery pseudoaneurysm. We emphasize the use of electrodiagnostic studies to investigate patients with back and limb pain for correctly localizing responsible pathology. In this case a potentially lethal situation was correctly identified in a transplant patient.
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ranking = 2
keywords = nerve
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10/558. An unusual manifestation of diabetes mellitus.

    MEDICAL history: Type 2 diabetes mellitus for five years; unexplained 35-lb weight loss three years ago; Bell's palsy on right side many years ago. MEDICATIONS: glipizide, 10 mg/day. family history: Father died of leukemia at age 65; mother has kidney stones; no diabetes or neuromuscular disease. SOCIAL history: insurance salesman; heterosexual, promiscuous, uses condoms; smokes (25 pack years); does not drink. physical examination: Well-nourished, well developed, not in acute distress; had difficulty rising from a sitting position because of right lower extremity weakness. blood pressure, 154/74; pulse, 88; temperature, 36.6 degrees C; respiratory rate, 16. head, eyes, ears, nose, and throat: normal. neck: normal. heart: S4. Lungs: clear. abdomen: mildly obese. extremities: no cyanosis, clubbing, or edema; atrophy and weakness of right thigh and both calves; wide-based gait; able to walk on toes but not heels. Neurologic responses: cranial nerves intact; deep tendon reflexes, 1 symmetrically; plantar reflexes, flexor bilaterally. skin: macular rash in sun-exposed areas. LABORATORY FINDINGS: Hemoglobin, 13.2 gm/dL; mean corpuscular volume, 80 micron 3; white blood cell count, 7,200/mm3 (normal differential); platelet count, 137,000/mm3. serum: electrolytes, normal; blood urea nitrogen, 18 mg/dL; creatinine, 0.8 mg/dL; glucose, 308 mg/dL; total protein, albumin, liver enzymes, and creatine kinase, normal. urine: 1 glucose. Venereal disease test: nonreactive; hiv test: negative. DIFFERENTIAL diagnosis: dermatomyositis; heavy-metal poisoning; diabetic amyotrophy. HOSPITAL COURSE: The patient was given 50 mg/day of oral amitriptyline to alleviate the painful paresthesias and was switched to 20 U/day of subcutaneously injected neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin to normalize the blood glucose level. Histologic studies of skin and muscle showed sun damage and neuropathic changes, respectively. There was no evidence of vasculitis. Screening for heavy-metal toxins produced negative results.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nerve
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