Cases reported "Pancreatic Diseases"

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1/171. Isolated tuberculosis of the pancreas after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    A patient presented with intermittent high fever, upper abdominal pain, and loss of appetite 9 months after an orthotopic liver transplantation. Computed tomography showed a large mass in the pancreas that was confirmed at laparotomy. Pathological examination of the pancreatic biopsy specimen showed several chronic granulomatous lesions with caseating necrosis. Two and one half months after beginning antituberculous treatment, there was an important reduction of the pancreatic mass.
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2/171. Renal failure resulting from infiltration by inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor responsive to corticosteroid therapy.

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare disease of inflammatory and spindle cell proliferative lesions in multiple sites. Most frequently reported in the lungs, a variety of extrapulmonary sites have been described. We report the first case of IMT causing renal failure by massive bilateral renal infiltration. Renal function continued to deteriorate (peak serum creatinine level, 8.4 mg/dL) despite placement of a ureteral stent. The kidneys were diffusely enlarged on computed tomographic (CT) scan. Renal biopsy showed myofibroblastic proliferation and inflammatory infiltration. Renal failure responded favorably over weeks to corticosteroid therapy (serum creatinine level, 2.8 mg/dL) with a marked reduction in bilateral renal enlargement by CT scan.
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3/171. learning from case reports: diagnostic issues in an epidemiologic study of pancreatic cancer.

    epidemiologic studies on exocrine pancreatic cancer show a large heterogeneity in diagnostic criteria applied to define "caseness." Reanalyses conducted after review of diagnostic information have yielded substantially different results than those based on more crude classifications of disease. During a multicenter prospective study on mutations in the K-ras gene in pancreatic and biliary diseases, hospital diagnoses from 602 patients were reviewed by a panel of experts. There were two main motivations to do so: a generic interest for the quality of the diagnostic data, and the anticipation that a firm diagnosis could be needed to assess whether patients whose tumors did not harbor the mutation were true negatives or false negatives. In addition, the review of diagnoses was helpful to minimize tissue misclassification, and it had a high educational value for clinicians and epidemiologists. This article illustrates why and how this was so through a brief presentation of the 10 most significant cases. With respect to selection and classification of subjects, the main issues that studies on pancreatic cancer need to address are the differential diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic cancer and pancreatitis, the differential diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic cancer and other abdominal tumors, and the use of survival as a hallmark of pancreatic cancer. In epidemiologic studies of pancreatic cancer, it is warranted that a panel of experts centrally reviews all the existing diagnostic evidence (cytohistological and other) of all patients, regardless of whether they have cytohistological confirmation and of their hospital discharge diagnosis.
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4/171. Annular pancreas associated with pancreatolithiasis: a case report.

    We present a case of annular pancreas associated with pancreatolithiasis. A 41 year-old Japanese man with epigastric pain was admitted to the surgical service at Miyazaki Medical College Hospital. Contrast duodenography revealed severe stenosis of the descending duodenum. cholangiography showed a stenotic segment of the intrapancreatic common bile duct surrounded by calcifications. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed calcifications in the posterior region of the pancreatic head. Percutaneous cannulation of the pancreatic ductal system, using ultrasonic guidance, demonstrated a slightly dilated pancreatic duct in the body, stenosis of the duct of Wirsung in the pancreatic head, a normal duct of Santorini, and calcifications in the duct of an annular pancreas which communicated with the duct of Wirsung. At surgery, the second portion of the duodenum was completely encircled by the annular pancreas, and a Whipple procedure was performed. Including this patient, 170 adult cases of annular pancreas have been reported in japan since 1922. Surgery was performed on 122 patients; 106 of these procedures were well documented. A Whipple procedure was performed on 16 patients, including the present case. Nine of these 16 patients had associated malignant disease, while the others had benign pancreatic disease. This is the fifth reported case of pancreatolithiasis associated with an annular pancreas in japan. This case emphasizes that an annular pancreas may predispose to localized chronic pancreatitis and pancreatolithiasis.
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5/171. ascites in benign disease of the pancreas.

    ascites in benign disease of the pancreas is a rare observation. One patient with this condition is discussed. The key to the diagnosis is the raise of the amylase and protein content of the ascitic fluid. The condition is caused by pancreatic juice oozing into the free abdominal cavity through a rupture of the pancreatic duct or a pancreatic cyst. Surgical treatment may result in recovery.
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6/171. Surgical approaches for pancreatic ascites: report of three cases.

    Pancreatic ascites can occur in association with the rupture of a pseudocyst or the disruption of a pancreatic duct during the natural course of chronic pancreatitis. We report herein the successful treatment of three patients with pancreatic ascites by performing a surgical procedure after 4-6 weeks of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) proved ineffective. The principles of our surgical procedure for pancreatic ascites are as follows: (1) minimum pancreatic tissue is resected; (2) surgical intervention to repair leaking sites is not necessary; (3) pancreatic duct drainage is facilitated by an intestinal Roux-en-Y loop; (4) An external drainage tube is inserted through the Roux-en-Y loop into the main pancreatic duct. All three patients who underwent our surgical procedure had a good outcome. Although the mean follow-up time is still only 18.3 months, their condition has improved, with no evidence of recurrent ascites. Thus, our surgical procedure should be considered as an appropriate treatment for pancreatic ascites because it can be applied for all types of leakage, including leakage from the posterior wall of pancreas; it preserves pancreatic function, especially endocrine function; and it enables preservation of the spleen.
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7/171. Pancreatic arteriovenous malformation observed to bleed from the bile duct and a duodenal ulcer: report of a case.

    A 48-year-old man with recurrent episodes of biliary colic and subsequent pancreatitis was admitted to undergo a cholecystectomy. A gastroduodenal fiberscopic examination was performed because of massive melena on the seventh day after admission. It revealed a shallow ulcer on the posterior wall of a duodenal bulbus with rubor and an exposed vessel, which was clipped endoscopically to stop the bleeding. Further observations showed the papilla of Vater to be bleeding from the papilla. A contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated a dilatation of the common bile duct and several dilated vasculatures around the portal vein, some of which drained into the portal vein. Based on the angiography findings, a diagnosis of arteriovenous malformation in the pancreas head was obtained and an embolization of the gastroduodenal artery was performed. Although the melena subsided, he underwent a pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy to prevent the recurrence of hemorrhaging. The histopathological findings of the bile duct revealed inflammatory cell infiltration and a detachment of the epithelium, except in a small part of the bile duct. A rupture of a damaged vessel inside the bile duct was observed, which was thought to be the cause of hemobilia. Sections of the pancreatic head demonstrated an inflammatory lesion with fibrosis and saponification as well as a large degree of arteriovenous anastomosis. The patient was discharged on the 35th day after the operation following an uneventful postoperative course.
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8/171. Clinical evaluation of three-dimensional MR-cholangiopancreatography using three-dimensional Fourier transform fast asymmetric spin echo method (3DFT-FASE): usefulness of observation by multi-planar reconstruction.

    MR-cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a new method that is non-invasive and permits volume data collection and three-dimensional expression. With the three-dimensional Fourier transform fast asymmetric spin echo (3DFT-FASE) method, a higher spatial resolution can be obtained both in-pain and in slice selecting direction. In this paper, the usefulness of this new technique is investigated in the clinical diagnosis of MIP images and MPR. The study was performed in 10 normal volunteers and 21 patients with abnormalities in the pancreas or bile-duct sustem. The study was done using a 1.5 Tesla super-conductive machine. The MRCP images were interpreted by three radiologists. In most cases good images were obtained. The additional clinical information provided by MPR was remarkably useful in cystic lesions, especially in mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas. Even when the intestine overlapped the pancreas, it was possible to evaluate the pancreatic duct by MPR. Three-dimensional observation and clinically useful diagnosis were possible by utilizing the advantageds of the 3DFT-FASE method appears quite useful in clinical application.
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9/171. Clinical significance of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography for the diagnosis of cystic tumor of the pancreas compared with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and computed tomography.

    BACKGROUND: Cystic tumor of the pancreas has been investigated by a variety of imaging techniques. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is being widely used as a non-invasive diagnostic modality for investigation of the biliary tree and pancreatic duct system. The purpose of this study was to compare MRCP images with those of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and computed tomography (CT) in order to clarify the diagnostic efficacy of MRCP for cystic tumor of the pancreas. methods: We retrospectively studied 15 patients with cystic tumor of the pancreas that had been surgically resected and histopathologically confirmed. There were five cases of intraductal papillary adenocarcinoma, five of intraductal papillary adenoma, two of serous cyst adenoma, two of retention cyst associated with invasive ductal adenocarcinoma and one of solid cystic tumor. RESULTS: In all cases MRCP correctly identified the main pancreatic duct (MPD) and showed the entire cystic tumor and the communication between the tumor and the MPD. On the other hand, the detection rate by ERCP of the cystic tumor and the communication between the cystic tumor and the MPD was only 60%. Although the detection rates by CT for the septum and solid components inside the cystic tumor were 100 and 90.0%, respectively, those of MRCP for each were 58.3 and 20.0%. CONCLUSION: MRCP is capable of providing diagnostic information superior to ERCP for the diagnosis of cystic tumor of the pancreas. Although MRCP may provide complementary information about the whole lesion of interest, the characteristic internal features of cystic tumor of the pancrease should be carefully diagnosed in combination with CT.
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10/171. Pancreatic tuberculosis with obstructive jaundice--a case report.

    Isolated pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) is very rare and its treatment somewhat controversial. We report a case of pancreatic TB diagnosed as pancreatic carcinoma. An 82-yr-old man presented with right upper abdominal pain and obstructive jaundice, without fever or weight loss. ultrasonography, computed tomography, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a mass lesion in the pancreatic head, which caused stricturing of the distal common bile duct and pancreatic duct in the head of the gland. As malignancy was suspected, he underwent a Whipple procedure (pancreaticoduodenectomy). Histological examination of the resection specimen disclosed typical features of tuberculosis in the pancreatic head, lymph nodes, and at the ampulla of vater. The rest of the abdominal cavity was unremarkable. After receiving antimicrobial therapy for tuberculosis for 6 months, he remains well, without jaundice or a recurrent mass visible by ultrasound.
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