Cases reported "Pancreatic Fistula"

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1/39. Infected pancreatic pseudocysts with colonic fistula formation successfully managed by endoscopic drainage alone: report of two cases.

    Fistulization of pancreatic pseudocysts into surrounding viscera is a well-known phenomenon and usually requires surgical management. We report two cases of pancreatic pseudocysts that developed spontaneous fistulas to the colon with resulting fever and abdominal pain. The patients were managed nonoperatively with a combination of endoscopic drainage and antibiotics, and their pseudocysts and fistulas resolved. The patients have remained symptom-free for a mean of 14 months of follow-up.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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2/39. Biliopancreatic fistula associated with intraductal papillary-mucinous pancreatic cancer: institutional experience and review of the literature.

    Intraductal papillary-mucinous tumour is clinicopathologically characterized by papillary growth and mucin production within the pancreatic duct system. The category includes a wide range of dysplasia, ranging from adenoma to carcinoma, the latter designated as intraductal papillary-mucinous cancer. In general, the tumor renders a favorable prognosis after complete resection. However, intraductal papillary-mucinous tumor with overt invasion outside the gland has been reported to have a poor prognosis, as is the case with the usual type of duct cell cancer of the pancreas. We experienced two cases of intraductal papillary-mucinous cancer with obstructive jaundice due to impaction of thick mucus protruding from the pancreas via a "spontaneous" biliopancreatic fistula. Preoperative examinations of both patients showed a large intraductal papillary-mucinous tumor in the head of the pancreas with fistula formation between the intrapancreatic portion of the common bile duct and the main pancreatic duct. Histopathological investigation of the two resected specimens suggested that the fistula may not have developed from invasion by papillary or tubular adenocarcinoma, but from compression and destruction of the intercalating tissues by abundant mucinous secretion. The first patient died of peritoneal carcinomatosis with clinicopathologic features of pseudomyxoma peritonei 6 years after surgery. The second patient is alive and has been well for 2 years postoperatively. review of the world literature showed that half of the patients with intraductal papillary-mucinous cancer plus biliopancreatic fistula had no stromal invasion around the fistula, indicating that the fistula might have been caused by mechanical pressure. However, the other half of the cases did have stromal invasion around the fistula. Two-thirds of these cases, including our own patients, had foci of mucinous carcinoma in the stroma around the fistulization, implying that mucinous lakes in the stroma may have served as part of the "waterway" from the pancreatic duct to the bile duct, assisted by increased pressure by mucus production. Since intraductal papillary-mucinous cancer with biliopancreatic fistula has a comparatively favorable prognosis, surgical resection should be considered.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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3/39. Percutaneous treatment of a pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Breakdown of the pancreaticojejunal anastomosis after a Whipple procedure is reported to occur in as many as 15% of cases. Intraoperative placement of a drain adjacent to the anastomosis is performed to allow the creation of a controlled pancreaticocutaneous fistula in the event of an anastomotic disruption. The authors present a case of successful percutaneous treatment of a disrupted pancreaticojejunal anastomosis. This was achieved with use of the resulting pancreaticocutaneous fistula for access to restore internal drainage, followed by fistula occlusion with use of gelatin pledgets.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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4/39. Pancreatic pseudocysts complicated by splenic parenchymal involvement: results of operative and percutaneous management.

    Pancreatic pseudocysts are a common finding in acute and chronic pancreatitis, but most are small and uncomplicated, and do not require treatment. Pseudocysts with splenic parenchymal involvement are uncommon but have the potential for massive hemorrhage. Data on the clinical presentation and optimal treatment of this unusual complication of pseudocysts are lacking. The purpose of this review was to identify the clinical features of pancreatic pseudocysts complicated by splenic parenchymal involvement and to determine the outcome with nonoperative and operative therapy. methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of all patients with pancreatic pseudocysts from December 1984 to January 1999 revealed 238 patients, of whom 14 (6%) had splenic parenchymal involvement. These medical records were reviewed in detail and all pertinent radiographs were reviewed by the authors to confirm splenic parenchymal involvement by a pancreatic pseudocyst. RESULTS: Initial treatment included observation (n = 2), percutaneous drainage (n = 8), and surgery (n = 4). Of the eight patients treated by percutaneous drainage, one died, three required repeated percutaneous drainage, and three required surgical intervention. None of the patients treated primarily by surgery required additional therapy for the pseudocyst. overall, 11 patients had complications of the primary therapy, and 25% of patients treated by surgery had significant hemorrhage. Complications included infection (n = 5), pseudocyst persistence (n = 4), bleeding (n = 2), multisystem organ failure (n = 2), gastric outlet obstruction (n = 1), and splenic rupture (n = 2). CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic pseudocysts complicated by splenic parenchymal involvement may have life-threatening clinical presentations and respond poorly to percutaneous drainage. Distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy are effective, but the complication rate is high.
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ranking = 6
keywords = operative
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5/39. The first histological demonstration of pancreatic oxidative stress in human acute pancreatitis.

    Necrotizing acute pancreatitis is associated with an inflammatory explosion involving numerous pro-inflammatory mediator cascades and oxidative stress. Acinar oxygen free radical production aggravates pancreatic tissue damage, and promotes cellular adhesion molecule upregulation resulting in leukocyte adherence and activation. The cerium capture oxygen free radical histochemistry combined with reflectance confocal laser scanning microscopy allows the "in situ" histological demonstration of oxygen free radical formation in live tissues. Here we present a case report, where oxidative stress is demonstrated on a histological level for the first time in human acute pancreatitis. A 44-year-old male patient suffering from acute exacerbation of his chronic pancreatitis developed a pancreato-pleural fistula with amylase-rich left pleural exudate causing respiratory compromise. Subsequent to an urgent thoracic decompression a distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed with the closure of abdomino-thoracic fistula. The postoperative course was uneventful, except for a transient pancreatico-cutaneous fistula, which healed after conservative treatment. To carry out cerium capture oxygen free radical histochemistry the resected pancreas specimen was readily perfused with cerium-chloride solution through the arteries on the resection surface. frozen sections were cut, E-, p-selectin, ICAM and VCAM were labeled by immunofluorescence. The tumor-free margin of an identically treated pancreas carcinoma specimen served as a control. Intrapancreatic oxidative stress and cellular adhesion molecule expression were detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Numerous pancreatic acini and neighboring capillaries showed oxygen free radical-derived cerium-perhy-droxide depositions corresponding to strong local oxidative stress. Acinar cytoplasmic reflectance signals suggested xanthine-oxidase as a source of oxygen free radicals. These areas presented considerably increased endothelial p-selectin expression with adherent, oxygen free radical-producing polymorphonuclear leukocytes displaying pericellular cerium-reflectance. Modest ICAM upregulation was noted, e-selectin and VCAM expression was negligible. The control pancreas specimen showed minimal oxidative stress with weak, focal p-selectin expression. The development of deleterious pancreatic oxidative stress was based on indirect evidence in human acute pancreatitis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report demonstrating persistent intrapancreatic oxidative stress histologically in human acute pancreatitis. We have noted p-selectin overexpression with a preponderance in the areas of acinar oxidative stress.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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6/39. Preoperative endoscopic pancreatic stenting for safe local pancreatic resection.

    Local pancreatic resection and enucleation have the advantage of preserving pancreatic parenchyma but pancreatic fistula often occurs postoperatively. We describe a case in which preoperative endoscopic pancreatic stenting prevented pancreatic fistula formation following local pancreatic resection. A pancreatic stent seems to prevent leakage from small pancreatic branch ducts not identified or ligated intraoperatively, via the pancreatic decompression effect. The present case demonstrates a novel indication for endoscopic pancreatic stenting.
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ranking = 7
keywords = operative
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7/39. Radical distal pancreatectomy with en bloc resection of the celiac artery, plexus, and ganglions for advanced cancer of the pancreatic body: a preliminary report on perfect pain relief.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to report the effect of radical distal pancreatectomy with en bloc resection of the celiac artery, plexus, and ganglions for locally advanced cancer of the pancreatic body on intractable abdominal and/or back pain and to explore the histopathologic mechanism of this pain. patients: Five patients with pancreatic body cancer involving the celiac and/or common hepatic artery underwent this radical surgery intended to cure the cancer. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Surgical magnitude, postoperative pain control, postoperative outcome, and histopathologic findings were studied. RESULTS: Arterial reconstruction, gastrointestinal reconstruction, and blood transfusions were unnecessary. The organ deficit was limited to the distal pancreas, spleen and left adrenal gland. There was no postoperative mortality. postoperative complications occurred in four patients, who were successfully managed with medical treatment. This led to prolonged hospital stays. The intractable preoperative abdominal and/or back pain was completely relieved immediately after surgery in all patients. Perfect pain control has been maintained from surgery to the last follow-up. Histopathologic examination of the surgical specimens revealed cancer invasion of the celiac plexus in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: This operation offers not only disease radicality but also perfect pain relief. The survival benefit has not yet been fully defined.
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ranking = 5
keywords = operative
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8/39. Pancreatic rupture following a bull-head caused blunt abdominal trauma.

    A 33-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with clinical and instrumental-diagnostic evidence (CT) of haemoperitoneum following a blunt abdominal trauma due to being butted by a bull. A full-thickness rupture of the pancreas, at the level of the isthmus, was found at laparotomy. The emergency procedure consisted in evacuation of the haemoperitoneum, haemostasis and suture of the pancreatic lesion plus drainage of the lesser sac. A high-output (800 ml/day) post-traumatic pancreatic fistula developed in the following days, with the need for a second operation. In the presence of a large pancreatic defect extensively communicating with the Wirsung duct, a singular surgical procedure was adopted in the form of a Roux-en-Y pancreaticojejunostomy with catheterisation of the pancreatic fistula using a small disposable silicone catheter. The post-operative course was uneventful and healing of the pancreatic fistula was documented at CT scan 39 days after the operation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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9/39. Complete transection of the body of the stomach resulting from blunt trauma.

    Gastric perforation due to blunt trauma is rare, especially in children. The authors present a case of complete transection of the stomach in a 10-year-old boy who was thrown across the steel back of a seat in a school bus. Associated injuries included hematoma, a torn spleen, a seromuscular tear of the duodenojejunal flexure and complete transection of the pancreas and rectus abdominis muscle. The boy's postoperative course was complicated by the development of peritonitis with abscess formation and a pancreatic fistula. To the author's knowledge this is The first case of complete transection of the stomach, due to blunt trauma reported in the English literature.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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10/39. Surgical treatment for right pleural effusions caused by pancreaticopleural fistula.

    A 56-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented with exertional dyspnea. A chest radiography showed a massive right pleural effusion with sanguineous pleural fluid and an amylase level of 97,188 IU/L. Despite conservative treatment with no oral intake, total parenteral nutrition and repeated thoracentesis, the pleural effusion was persistent and intrathoracic infection was suspected. Surgical intervention was proposed and a preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed disruption of the mid pancreatic duct and a fistulous tract. A middle segment pancreatectomy was performed for removal of the disrupted portion of the main pancreatic duct and reconstruction of the distal pancreas was completed by end-to-side Rouxen-Y pancreatojejunostomy. The patient had a good postoperative course and was discharged on the 29th postoperative day. He has remained well during the 9 months of follow-up.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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