Cases reported "Pancreatic Fistula"

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11/182. Biliopancreatic fistulas complicating pancreatic pseudocysts: a report of three cases demonstrated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

    Three patients were found to have fistulation of the pancreatic and common bile ducts, complicating chronic pancreatitis in one patient and acute pancreatitis in two patients. Closure of the fistula was achieved with biliary and pancreatic stenting in one patient; the other two patients were treated surgically because endoscopic treatment had failed. The clinical and radiological features of this exceptional complication are presented, with a brief review of the topic. ( info)

12/182. Percutaneous embolization of the distal pancreatic duct to treat intractable pancreatic juice fistula.

    Pseudocysts and post-necrotic collections of the pancreas are sometimes treated by percutaneous drainage. In cases of post-necrotic collection, intractable pancreatic juice fistula is often formed by disruption of the main pancreatic duct in the necrotized region. We radically treated intractable pancreatic juice fistulae by selective cannulation into the distal pancreatic duct via the route for percutaneous drainage of post-necrotic collections to extinguish the exocrine function of the caudal pancreas. We performed this procedure in two patients in whom the major pancreatic duct was damaged at the body of the pancreas, which was extensively necrotic. Although mild symptoms of acute pancreatitis appeared in both patients after the first procedure, they recovered without severe side effects. Neither recurrence of pancreatic juice fistulae nor reduction of the glucose tolerance was caused by removing the exocrine function of the caudal pancreas in either patient 32 and 24 months after treatment, respectively. This method is an effective treatment modality with which to treat intractable pancreatic juice fistulae with damage of the main pancreatic duct. ( info)

13/182. Percutaneous treatment of a pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Breakdown of the pancreaticojejunal anastomosis after a Whipple procedure is reported to occur in as many as 15% of cases. Intraoperative placement of a drain adjacent to the anastomosis is performed to allow the creation of a controlled pancreaticocutaneous fistula in the event of an anastomotic disruption. The authors present a case of successful percutaneous treatment of a disrupted pancreaticojejunal anastomosis. This was achieved with use of the resulting pancreaticocutaneous fistula for access to restore internal drainage, followed by fistula occlusion with use of gelatin pledgets. ( info)

14/182. Pancreatocolonic fistula due to severe acute pancreatitis: imaging findings.

    Colonic involvement is an uncommon but potentially lethal complication of severe acute pancreatitis. The spectrum of colonic complications includes localized ileus with "pseudo-obstruction", obstruction, necrosis, hemorrhage, fistula, and ischemic colitis. We report on a patient who developed pancreatocolonic fistulization in the course of protracted severe acute pancreatitis. Emphasis is made on the computed tomographic and water soluble contrast enema findings. ( info)

15/182. Pancreatic pseudocysts complicated by splenic parenchymal involvement: results of operative and percutaneous management.

    Pancreatic pseudocysts are a common finding in acute and chronic pancreatitis, but most are small and uncomplicated, and do not require treatment. Pseudocysts with splenic parenchymal involvement are uncommon but have the potential for massive hemorrhage. Data on the clinical presentation and optimal treatment of this unusual complication of pseudocysts are lacking. The purpose of this review was to identify the clinical features of pancreatic pseudocysts complicated by splenic parenchymal involvement and to determine the outcome with nonoperative and operative therapy. methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of all patients with pancreatic pseudocysts from December 1984 to January 1999 revealed 238 patients, of whom 14 (6%) had splenic parenchymal involvement. These medical records were reviewed in detail and all pertinent radiographs were reviewed by the authors to confirm splenic parenchymal involvement by a pancreatic pseudocyst. RESULTS: Initial treatment included observation (n = 2), percutaneous drainage (n = 8), and surgery (n = 4). Of the eight patients treated by percutaneous drainage, one died, three required repeated percutaneous drainage, and three required surgical intervention. None of the patients treated primarily by surgery required additional therapy for the pseudocyst. overall, 11 patients had complications of the primary therapy, and 25% of patients treated by surgery had significant hemorrhage. Complications included infection (n = 5), pseudocyst persistence (n = 4), bleeding (n = 2), multisystem organ failure (n = 2), gastric outlet obstruction (n = 1), and splenic rupture (n = 2). CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic pseudocysts complicated by splenic parenchymal involvement may have life-threatening clinical presentations and respond poorly to percutaneous drainage. Distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy are effective, but the complication rate is high. ( info)

16/182. The first histological demonstration of pancreatic oxidative stress in human acute pancreatitis.

    Necrotizing acute pancreatitis is associated with an inflammatory explosion involving numerous pro-inflammatory mediator cascades and oxidative stress. Acinar oxygen free radical production aggravates pancreatic tissue damage, and promotes cellular adhesion molecule upregulation resulting in leukocyte adherence and activation. The cerium capture oxygen free radical histochemistry combined with reflectance confocal laser scanning microscopy allows the "in situ" histological demonstration of oxygen free radical formation in live tissues. Here we present a case report, where oxidative stress is demonstrated on a histological level for the first time in human acute pancreatitis. A 44-year-old male patient suffering from acute exacerbation of his chronic pancreatitis developed a pancreato-pleural fistula with amylase-rich left pleural exudate causing respiratory compromise. Subsequent to an urgent thoracic decompression a distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed with the closure of abdomino-thoracic fistula. The postoperative course was uneventful, except for a transient pancreatico-cutaneous fistula, which healed after conservative treatment. To carry out cerium capture oxygen free radical histochemistry the resected pancreas specimen was readily perfused with cerium-chloride solution through the arteries on the resection surface. frozen sections were cut, E-, p-selectin, ICAM and VCAM were labeled by immunofluorescence. The tumor-free margin of an identically treated pancreas carcinoma specimen served as a control. Intrapancreatic oxidative stress and cellular adhesion molecule expression were detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Numerous pancreatic acini and neighboring capillaries showed oxygen free radical-derived cerium-perhy-droxide depositions corresponding to strong local oxidative stress. Acinar cytoplasmic reflectance signals suggested xanthine-oxidase as a source of oxygen free radicals. These areas presented considerably increased endothelial p-selectin expression with adherent, oxygen free radical-producing polymorphonuclear leukocytes displaying pericellular cerium-reflectance. Modest ICAM upregulation was noted, e-selectin and VCAM expression was negligible. The control pancreas specimen showed minimal oxidative stress with weak, focal p-selectin expression. The development of deleterious pancreatic oxidative stress was based on indirect evidence in human acute pancreatitis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report demonstrating persistent intrapancreatic oxidative stress histologically in human acute pancreatitis. We have noted p-selectin overexpression with a preponderance in the areas of acinar oxidative stress. ( info)

17/182. Hemosuccus pancreaticus: diagnosis with CT and MRI and treatment with transcatheter embolization.

    We report the case of a 56-year-old woman with a presyncopal episode followed by melena. A sentinel clot sign in the pancreatic duct on precontrast computed tomography and the presence of a splenic artery aneurysm on postcontrast computed tomography strongly suggested a fistula between the aneurysm and the duct, as visualized by magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was treated successfully by complete embolization of the splenic artery aneurysm. ( info)

18/182. Preoperative endoscopic pancreatic stenting for safe local pancreatic resection.

    Local pancreatic resection and enucleation have the advantage of preserving pancreatic parenchyma but pancreatic fistula often occurs postoperatively. We describe a case in which preoperative endoscopic pancreatic stenting prevented pancreatic fistula formation following local pancreatic resection. A pancreatic stent seems to prevent leakage from small pancreatic branch ducts not identified or ligated intraoperatively, via the pancreatic decompression effect. The present case demonstrates a novel indication for endoscopic pancreatic stenting. ( info)

19/182. Radical distal pancreatectomy with en bloc resection of the celiac artery, plexus, and ganglions for advanced cancer of the pancreatic body: a preliminary report on perfect pain relief.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to report the effect of radical distal pancreatectomy with en bloc resection of the celiac artery, plexus, and ganglions for locally advanced cancer of the pancreatic body on intractable abdominal and/or back pain and to explore the histopathologic mechanism of this pain. patients: Five patients with pancreatic body cancer involving the celiac and/or common hepatic artery underwent this radical surgery intended to cure the cancer. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Surgical magnitude, postoperative pain control, postoperative outcome, and histopathologic findings were studied. RESULTS: Arterial reconstruction, gastrointestinal reconstruction, and blood transfusions were unnecessary. The organ deficit was limited to the distal pancreas, spleen and left adrenal gland. There was no postoperative mortality. postoperative complications occurred in four patients, who were successfully managed with medical treatment. This led to prolonged hospital stays. The intractable preoperative abdominal and/or back pain was completely relieved immediately after surgery in all patients. Perfect pain control has been maintained from surgery to the last follow-up. Histopathologic examination of the surgical specimens revealed cancer invasion of the celiac plexus in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: This operation offers not only disease radicality but also perfect pain relief. The survival benefit has not yet been fully defined. ( info)

20/182. Pancreatic pseudocystportal vein fistula manifests as residivating oligoarthritis, subcutaneous, bursal and osseal necrosis: a case report and review of literature.

    Pseudocyst is a common complication of pancreatitis. Pseudocyst may rupture into the surrounding organs. Rupture into the portomesenteric vein is extremely rare with only seven cases being described in the English literature. pancreatic portal vein fistula is very difficult to verify. The aim of this study was to view the diagnostic methods of pancreatic portal vein fistula and to describe the results of high-dose corticosteroid treatment to our knowledge for the first time. We report here a case of pancreatic portomesenteric vein fistula that was manifest as subcutaneous fat necrosis, bursal necrosis, intramedullary aseptic bone necrosis and recidivating oligoarthritis. The literature of this unusual complication is reviewed. The results of high-dose corticosteroid treatment are also described. In patients with recidivating oligoarthritis, subcutaneous, bursal or osseal necrosis a pancreatic process should be included in the differential diagnosis even in cases of no abdominal signs or symptoms or previous abdominal history. Operative exploration of the pancreas should be performed in the early phase of the disease. To diminish the ongoing extrapancreatic manifestations after the closure of the fistula massive corticosteroid treatment may be attempted although the role of this therapy remains controversial. ( info)
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