Cases reported "Pancreatic Pseudocyst"

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1/21. Management of pancreatic pseudocysts by endoscopic cystogastrostomy.

    Open surgical drainage is currently the treatment of choice for pancreatic pseudocysts, but endoscopic transmural drainage is another minimally invasive surgical alternative. In this report, we describe two patients with symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts treated with endoscopic cystogastrostomy. The first patient, a 15-year-old boy, had an episode of traumatic pancreatitis after abdominal injury from a car accident, and complained of postprandial vomiting and abdominal distention 4 weeks later. A large pancreatic pseudocyst, about 10 cm x 6 cm, was noted. The second patient, a 44-year-old man, had a 1-year history of recurrent alcoholic pancreatitis prior to this admission. He suffered from abdominal distention for several weeks. Sonography revealed a large pancreatic pseudocyst, about 18 cm x 9 cm in size. Both patients underwent successful endoscopic cyst-drainage without recurrence. These cases illustrate that endoscopic transmural drainage provides a minimally invasive and effective approach to the management of pancreatic pseudocysts.
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2/21. Proximal bile duct stricture caused by a pancreatic pseudocyst: intra-operative placement of a metallic stent.

    A 61 year-old man presented with a proximal bile duct stricture caused by a pancreatic pseudocyst, which is of rare occurrence. Although it could not be determined pre-operatively whether the lesion was caused by cholangiocarcinoma or inflammatory disease, a laparotomy revealed that the proximal extrahepatic bile duct was surrounded and constricted by a pancreatic pseudocyst extending into the hepatoduodenal ligament. Since the stricture was not relieved only by removing the contents of the pseudocyst and surgical biliary diversion was considered too difficult, a self-expandable metallic stent was placed intra-operatively, at the strictured site, under ultrasonic guidance, via the transhepatic approach. The post-operative course of the patient was uneventful, and he remains well 22 months after the operation. The intra-operative placement of a metallic stent into the biliary tract can be an alternative option in the relief of biliary obstruction.
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3/21. Retroperitoneal endoscopic debridement for infected peripancreatic necrosis.

    Standard management of infected peripancreatic necrosis consists of open surgical debridement and lavage--a traumatic intervention with substantial morbidity and mortality. As an alternative and novel approach with minimum invasiveness, we present fenestration of the gastric wall and debridement of infected necrosis by direct retroperitoneal endoscopy. In three patients, this strategy led to rapid clinical improvement and no serious complications. Transgastric endoscopic therapy may be a less traumatic alternative to surgery and should be further assessed in prospective studies.
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4/21. Mediastinal pancreatic pseudocyst in a child. A thoracoscopic approach.

    Mediastinal pancreatic pseudocyst is a rare occurrence in children and may be difficult to diagnose. Internal drainage via a cystenterostomy and a simple external drainage are two of the treatment options that are currently employed. We describe the case of an 11-year-old boy with a mediastinal pseudocyst who was treated via a thoracoscopic approach using an original pulmonary exclusion. The pseudocyst disappeared in 15 days and there has been no recurrence. No adjuvant treatment was necessary. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was useful in establishing the etiology (pancreas divisum). We believe that the thoracoscopic approach is a reproducible, simple, and safe procedure for the treatment of mediastinal pseudocysts. The technique may represent a valid alternative to cystogastrostomy.
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5/21. Treatment of traumatic pancreatic pseudocyst by percutaneous aspiration.

    We describe the nonoperative management of a traumatic pancreatic pseudocyst following blunt trauma in a child. This problem can be accurately diagnosed and followed with computed tomography or ultrasound. Percutaneous aspiration of unilocular pancreatic pseudocysts in children provides an attractive alternative to operative treatment in selected cases.
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6/21. Laparoscopic cystogastrostomy for the treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts in children.

    Pancreatic pseudocysts (PPSs) are common sequelae of pancreatitis and pancreatic trauma. The management is based upon the pseudocyst size and presence of symptoms. Those requiring intervention are often drained using several available options. The use of laparoscopic cystogastrostomy for large and recurrent PPSs has been described in adult patients as a less morbid alternative to open drainage procedures. This technique is considered a novel approach in children. We describe 2 children who had PPSs amenable to laparoscopic cystogastrostomy. The first was an 11-year-old girl who had blunt abdominal trauma from a bicycle handlebar. The second patient was a 7-year-old girl who developed idiopathic pancreatitis. Briefly, 2 ports were placed through the anterior abdominal and gastric walls, and into the lumen of the stomach. This intraluminal placement provided access to the posterior gastric wall. Using electrocautery diathermy, an incision was made through the posterior gastric wall and into the adjacent pseudocyst to obtain complete and unobstructed drainage. Both children tolerated the procedures well with resolution of their PPSs. The patients were each discharged on the fourth postoperative day and have been asymptomatic on 2 years follow-up. Laparoscopic cystogastrostomy is a safe and effective alternative to open cystogastrostomy for the minimally invasive management of PPSs in the pediatric population.
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7/21. Laparoscopic cystojejunostomy as a treatment option for pancreatic pseudocysts in children--a case report.

    Pancreatic pseudocysts are a rare entity in children for which many approaches have been described. We report on the case of a 5-year-old boy with a pancreatic pseudocyst after blunt abdominal trauma. The patient's clinical and laboratory examination findings had also revealed an acute pancreatitis. His diagnostic workup included ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Two large cysts were found at the tail of the pancreas. No injury of the pancreatic or bile duct was found. The child underwent successful laparoscopic cystojejunostomy. The patient was free of complaints after more than 2 years of follow-up. Laparoscopic cystojejunostomy in children with pancreatic pseudocysts may represent an alternative treatment option for large pancreatic pseudocysts.
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8/21. pancreatic pseudocyst: successful treatment by percutaneous external catheter drainage.

    A pseudocyst of the pancreas in a 6-year-old girl persisted for 2 months despite bowel rest and nutritional support. Following percutaneous introduction of a catheter into the cyst under ultrasound guidance and external catheter drainage for 11 days, the pseudocyst resolved completely and permanently. Nonoperative percutaneous techniques for drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts in children may be an effective alternative to surgical intervention.
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9/21. Current trends in the diagnosis and treatment of hepatic artery aneurysms.

    Aneurysms of the hepatic artery are rare lesions that constitute 20% of all splanchnic artery aneurysms. Their well-documented natural history includes progressive enlargement and eventual rupture. Computerized tomography, abdominal ultrasonography, or MRI may be used for initial evaluation, but angiography is required to make the definitive diagnosis and for delineation of the vascular anatomy. The lesion should be corrected surgically after the diagnosis is confirmed. Lesions proximal to the gastroduodenal artery may be ligated if there is sufficient collateral flow to the liver. For lesions distal to this artery, surgical resection and reconstruction is required. Selective embolization of intrahepatic or subhepatic aneurysms may be an effective alternative in high-risk patients. We had two cases of aneurysm of the hepatic artery diagnosed at our institution over the course of 18 months. Excellent results were obtained from surgical revascularization of the liver in both cases.
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10/21. Computed tomography of portal vein thrombosis: unusual appearances and pitfalls in diagnosis.

    In a review of 25 cases examined by CT in whom the diagnosis of visceral vein thrombosis had been made, we encountered four cases in which problematic CT findings led to an error in diagnosis by the prospective interpreter. In one case, gas in collateral periportal veins mimicked an abscess; in one case, segmentally occluded portal veins resembled dilated bile ducts; and in one case, expansion of the inferior mesenteric vein was interpreted as a pancreatic pseudocyst. One additional case of multiple intrahepatic stones mimicked calcified portal vein thrombus. Although most cases are straightforward, there is a spectrum of findings in visceral vein thrombosis that may lead to confusion; alternative imaging techniques may be necessary in these situations.
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