Cases reported "Pancreatic Pseudocyst"

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1/121. Haemosuccus pancreaticus: a clinical challenge.

    BACKGROUND: Haemosuccus pancreaticus is a rare complication of pancreatitis. It is a diagnostic problem for even the most astute clinician and a challenge for the expert endoscopist. We report a 25-year-old male patient who had all the features usually seen in haemosuccus pancreaticus patients: recurrent obscure upper gastrointestinal bleeding, pancreatitis, pseudocyst formation, ductal disruption, fistula and pancreatic ascites. The patient was treated by subtotal pancreatectomy, splenectomy and drainage of the pseudocyst. Although pancreatic duct communication with the surrounding vasculature could not be ascertained, we strongly believe the patient had haemosuccus pancreaticus because, over a follow-up period of 3 years, the patient was not only ascites free, but did not experience any further upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We believe that in evaluating patients with recurrent obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, one should always remember that the pancreas is a part of the gastrointestinal tract and, like other organs, is prone to blood loss.
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2/121. Operative indications for cystic lesions of the pancreas with malignant potential--our experience.

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: There are still many important but unclear points regarding the differential diagnosis and operative indications of cystic lesions of the pancreas with malignant potential. Studies of the clinicopathological and molecular biological characteristics of such diseases are necessary. In this paper, we discuss operative indications for this condition based on a review of the literature and our own experience. METHODOLOGY: Seven cases of serous cystadenoma and 9 cases of mucinous cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas that were operated on or autopsied in our department from 1980 to 1996 were analyzed clinicopathologically. Small cystic lesions incidentally found in 300 autopsied cases were also studied. Finally, mucin-producing tumors described in several reports were reviewed, and the branch type of this tumor was especially investigated. RESULTS: A marked disappearance of pancreatic acini in the upstream pancreas was found when serous cystadenoma became large. Papillary projection was histologically found in all of the cases. Tumorous invasion to the interstitium was suspected in tumors more than 5 cm in diameter, and malignancy was reported when tumors were larger than 6 cm. As for mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, the patients had a poor prognosis. In 2 of 42 cases with a pseudocyst, small duct cell carcinoma was incidentally found adjacent to the pseudocyst on the duodenal side. With regard to branch-type intraductal papillary neoplasm, 80% of the tumors larger than 4 cm were malignant. Most of the small cystic lesions found in elderly autopsy cases were accompanied by hyperplastic epithelia without evidence of malignancy. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our experience, an operation should be considered and resection is recommended under the following circumstances: 1) cystic lesions in the body and tail of the pancreas in middle-aged women; 2) typical serous cystadenoma larger than 4 cm; 3) mucinous cystadenoma of any size; 4) branch-type intraductal papillary neoplasm larger than about 3 cm; and, 5) pseudocysts of unknown cause. Small cystic lesions in elderly patients should not necessarily be operated on, but should be followed-up carefully.
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3/121. Nonoperative management of pancreatic pseudocysts. Problems in differential diagnosis.

    CONCLUSION: The evaluation of pancreatic cystic lesions entails a misdiagnosis risk. awareness of the problem, knowledge of the natural history of these lesions, and meticulous posttreatment follow-up can reduce the consequences of diagnostic errors. If all these precautions are adopted, pancreatic pseudocysts can be safely treated nonoperatively. BACKGROUND: The accurate diagnosis of pancreatic cystic lesions remains a problem. The aim of this study was to ascertain the incidence of and the reasons the diagnostic errors occurred in a series of pseudocysts drained percutaneously and to compare these data to those reported in the literature. methods: Data from 70 patients bearing one or more pseudocysts who underwent a percutaneous drainage were reviewed. The pretreatment workup included medical history, physical examination, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) scans, amylase assay in both the serum and the cystic fluid, culture and cytology of the cystic fluid. After removal of the drainage, the minimum follow-up period was 12 mo. RESULTS: Four patients died, and two cancer-associated pseudocysts were identified before removal of the drainage. Sixty-four patients were followed up for a mean of 51.9 mo (range 12-154 mo). A third cancer and a mucinous cystic tumor, fully communicating with the main duct, were further detected during this period.
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4/121. Proximal bile duct stricture caused by a pancreatic pseudocyst: intra-operative placement of a metallic stent.

    A 61 year-old man presented with a proximal bile duct stricture caused by a pancreatic pseudocyst, which is of rare occurrence. Although it could not be determined pre-operatively whether the lesion was caused by cholangiocarcinoma or inflammatory disease, a laparotomy revealed that the proximal extrahepatic bile duct was surrounded and constricted by a pancreatic pseudocyst extending into the hepatoduodenal ligament. Since the stricture was not relieved only by removing the contents of the pseudocyst and surgical biliary diversion was considered too difficult, a self-expandable metallic stent was placed intra-operatively, at the strictured site, under ultrasonic guidance, via the transhepatic approach. The post-operative course of the patient was uneventful, and he remains well 22 months after the operation. The intra-operative placement of a metallic stent into the biliary tract can be an alternative option in the relief of biliary obstruction.
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5/121. Two cases of chronic pancreatitis with pseudocyst complicated by obstructive jaundice.

    We recently treated two cases of chronic pancreatitis with obstructive jaundice due to compression of the common bile duct by pancreatic pseudocyst. The two cases were males admitted with the complaint of icteric skin color. The first, a 46-year-old male, admitted with the complaint of icteric skin color. He was treated by operative cystojejunostomy after percutaneous drainage of the pseudocyst and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. The other case was a 58 year-old male who admitted with the complaint of icteric skin color. He had an infected pseudocyst in the pancreas and was endoscopically treated. Both of them were discharged with favorable clinical course and normal laboratory findings after the treatment. The former patient remained well 11 months after treatment, but the latter patient died from necrotizing pancreatitis and septic shock 6 months after treatment. Most cases of obstructive jaundice associated with pseudocysts appear to be due to fibrotic stricture of the intrapancreatic portion of the common bile duct rather than due to compression of the bile duct by the pseudocyst. In a patient with secondary pancreatic infection or obstructive jaundice following pancreatic disease, differentiating between these two conditions is an important aspect of accurate diagnosis and therapy. Herein we report two unusual cases of chronic pancreatitis with pseudocyst complicated by obstructive jaundice.
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6/121. Biliopancreatic fistulas complicating pancreatic pseudocysts: a report of three cases demonstrated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

    Three patients were found to have fistulation of the pancreatic and common bile ducts, complicating chronic pancreatitis in one patient and acute pancreatitis in two patients. Closure of the fistula was achieved with biliary and pancreatic stenting in one patient; the other two patients were treated surgically because endoscopic treatment had failed. The clinical and radiological features of this exceptional complication are presented, with a brief review of the topic.
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7/121. Pancreatic head resection for noninflammatory benign lesions of the head of the pancreas.

    INTRODUCTION: duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) has been safely performed in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The procedure has rarely been used to remove benign or borderline lesions of the head of the pancreas. AIMS: To review our experience with 13 patients who underwent DPPHR and to review reports in the literature on the same subject. METHODOLOGY: From October 1991 to September 2000, 13 patients underwent DPPHR to resect endocrine pancreatic tumors (n = 4), beta cell hyperplasia (n = 1), pancreatic pseudocysts (n = 2), serous cystadenomas (n = 3), congenital (n = 1) and choledochal (n = 1) cysts, and intraductal papillary mucinous tumor (n = 1). The Kocher maneuver was performed in seven patients (group 1) and avoided in six (group 2). Type 1, 2, and 3 DPPHR were defined depending on the amount of pancreatic tissue left at the inner surface of the duodenum. Ten patients underwent evaluation that included an oral glucose tolerance test and exocrine pancreatic function test. RESULTS: The mortality rate was zero; the complication rate was 69%. patients in whom the Kocher maneuver was not performed (group 2) experienced fewer complications, shorter stay on nasogastric tube and abdominal drain(s), and earlier water intake and discharge. Type of DPPHR did not influence the postoperative course. One patient died 3 months after surgery of unrelated disease. Twelve patients were alive and well 2 months to 8 years after surgery. CONCLUSION: DPPHR is a low-risk procedure in patients with benign or borderline noninflammatory lesions of the head of the pancreas in whom pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy is otherwise indicated. Whenever possible, the Kocher maneuver should be avoided.
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8/121. Co-existence of a huge pseudocyst and mucinous cystadenoma: report of a case and the value of magnetic resonance imaging for differential diagnosis.

    Co-existence of a pancreatic pseudocyst and a neoplastic cyst is rare and their differential diagnosis is difficult if the patient has an atypical history as well as subclinical symptoms. The formation of a pseudocyst under such circumstances is usually the result of downstream ductal obstruction by the neoplasm. Two large cysts were found in a 43-year-old woman who had symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction that were the result of external compression by one of the cysts. magnetic resonance imaging was superior to computed tomography, discriminating between the internal contents and surrounding tissue of the two cysts, enabling the correct preoperative diagnosis of a pseudocyst co-existing with a mucinous cystadenoma to be made. It was most unusual for the pseudocyst to be located downstream of the mucinous tumour, ruling out ductal obstruction by the tumour in its pathogenesis. A possible explanation for the pseudocyst formation in this case was pancreatic juice accumulation in the space of the lesser sac after pancreatic parenchymal destruction by the mucinous tumour.
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9/121. Primary hydatid cyst of the pancreas related to main pancreatic duct. A case report.

    A case of primary hydatid cyst of the pancreas related to the main pancreatic duct is presented. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography revealed a cyst at the tail of the pancreas. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed dilatation of the distal part of the pancreatic duct related to the cystic cavity. While the diagnosis of the pancreatic pseudocyst was established preoperatively, the hydatid cyst was demonstrated at laparotomy and then the final decision of cystogastrostomy was employed. Following the uneventful postoperative period, the patient was discharged on the 8th postoperative day.
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10/121. A vanishing pseudocyst in the remnant pancreas after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy.

    We report a 74-year-old Japanese woman with a spontaneously vanishing pseudocyst in the remnant pancreas after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy for intraductal papillary-mucinous adenoma of the pancreas. A cystic lesion appeared in the remnant pancreas 6 months after the operation and had disappeared 3 months later. When a cystic lesion is encountered in the remnant pancreas after pancreatectomy for mucin-hypersecreting tumor of the pancreas, pseudocyst, as well as recurrence, should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Additional resection would likely cause considerable morbidity, with loss of endocrine and exocrine functions.
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