Cases reported "Pancreatic Pseudocyst"

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1/12. First clinical application of a newly developed device for intragastric surgery for the treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts.

    BACKGROUND: Instruments that have been used during GI endoscopy have always been confined to the accessory channel of the endoscope. We have therefore developed a device that allows transabdominal manipulation in the stomach under gastroscopic control. Here we report the first clinical application of this device, which was used for the drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts. methods: The device is similar to a PEG tube and consists of a 7 mm polyethylene tube that is inserted by the "thread pull through" method. A trocar valve is mounted at the external tip of the tube. Four pseudocysts were treated in three patients. The retrogastric pseudocysts were punctured through the device under endoscopic (n = 2) and CT (n = 2) guidance. External drainage was used for 3 to 5 days; thereafter the drain was cut and internalized. The device was also cut and sealed. After 10 days it was removed as with a standard PEG tube. RESULTS: No complications related to the device occurred. In two patients the pseudocysts resolved completely. One patient had to undergo pseudocystojejunostomy for an infected pseudocyst containing large amounts of necrotic material. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that our new device is valuable to the further development of intragastric surgery and can be used to safely perform pseudocystogastrostomy.
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2/12. Endoscopic drainage for pancreatic pseudocyst in children.

    The authors report here the results of endoscopic cystogastrostomy performed on 3 children aged 11, 3, and 2.5 years with nonresolving pancreatic pseudocyst (PP) of 12, 9.5, and 7 cm in diameter. The etiology of PP was abdominal trauma in 2 and idiopathic acute pancreatitis in 1 case. Ultrasound and computed tomography scans confirmed the diagnosis and suitability for gastric drainage. After the puncture of cyst, a double pig-tail stent was placed for the permanent drainage of cystogastrostomy. Complete regression was confirmed by follow-up ultrasonography at 8, 6, and 7 weeks, respectively. There were no procedure-related complications, nor was there a recurrence of cyst during the 2 years of follow-up. This report suggests that children with nonresolving PP, that are anatomically accessible, can be treated successfully and safely by endoscopic drainage.
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3/12. Laparoscopic intragastric stapled cystogastrostomy for pancreatic pseudocyst.

    BACKGROUND: Mature symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts require surgical intervention for their management. In this era of minimal access surgery, several reports are now available of laparoscopic management of pancreatic pseudocysts. patients AND methods: We have performed this procedure in five patients over the past 2 years. Four patients developed the pseudocyst after acute alcoholic pancreatitis and one following acute biliary pancreatitis. The diameter of the pseudocyst ranged from 8 to 12 cm. The procedure was performed using five ports. The Harmonic Scalpel was used to create two ports in the anterior stomach wall through which two balloon trocars were placed into the gastric lumen. Following balloon inflation, the trocars were used to lift up the anterior gastric wall. This created the space for the cystogastrostomy to be fashioned laparoscopically through the balloon trocar. The ball probe of the Harmonic Scalpel was used to puncture the cyst through the posterior gastric wall. The cystogastrostomy was completed by firing an Endo-GIA30 stapler across the fused posterior gastric wall and anterior wall of the cyst. RESULTS: The mean operative time was 90 minutes (range 80-125 minutes). The mean postoperative stay was 3.0 days. One patient had intraoperative bleeding at the anastomotic site, which was easily controlled. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic cystogastrostomy offers a feasible and safe therapeutic option for selected patients with large symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts.
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4/12. New mechanical puncture videoechoendoscope: one-step transmural drainage of a pseudocyst.

    A new mechanical puncture video echoendoscope (GF-UMD-240P 270 degrees image field parallel to the endoscope axis) has been used for puncture and drainage of a symptomatic pancreatic pseudocyst. It is equipped with a 2.8 mm working channel and an elevator allowing single step drainage with passage of a 7F nasocystic catheter.
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5/12. CT-guided drainage of a mediastinal pancreatic pseudocyst with a transhepatic transdiaphragmatic approach.

    We describe a mediastinal pancreatic pseudocyst treated with a catheter drainage placed under computed tomographic guidance using a newly applied approach. A needle was angled cephalad with the computed tomographic gantry tilt technique, and was inserted into the lowest portion of the cavity through the liver and through the diaphragm. The needle pathway was necessitated by the location of the pseudocyst cavity. The drainage alleviated completely the symptoms with no complications. The puncture technique should be an option for accessing mediastinal lesions percutaneously.
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6/12. A giant retention cyst of the pancreas (cystic dilatation of dorsal pancreatic duct) associated with pancreas divisum.

    We describe a rare case of pancreas divisum associated with a giant retention cyst (cystic dilatation of the dorsal pancreatic duct), presumably formed following obstruction of the minor papilla. The patient was treated by pancreatico(cysto)jejunostomy. A 50-year-old man was admitted with complaints of increasing upper abdominal distension and body weight loss. There was no previous history of pancreatitis, gallstones, drinking, or abdominal injury. An elastic-hard tumor-like resistance was palpable in the upper abdomen. Computed tomography and ultrasound (US) examinations revealed a giant cystic lesion expanding from the pancreas head to the tail. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography findings showed a looping pancreatic duct which drained only the head and uncinate process of the pancreas to the main papilla. A US-guided puncture to the cystic lesion revealed that the lesion continued to the main pancreatic duct in the tail of pancreas. The lesion was connected to a small cystic lesion, which was located inside the minor papilla, and ended there. The amylase level in liquid aspirated from the cyst was 37 869 IU/l, and the result of cytological examination of the liquid showed class II. A pancreatico(cysto)jejunostomy was performed, with the diagnosis being pancreas divisum associated with a retention cyst following obstruction of the minor papilla. The histological findings of a specimen from the cyst wall revealed that the wall was a pancreatic duct covered with mildly inflammatory duct epithelium; there was no evidence of neoplasm. The patient is currently well, and a CT examination 2 years after the operation showed disappearance of the cyst and normal appearance of the whole pancreas.
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7/12. Intraoperative packing of a pancreatic pseudocyst complicated with bleeding pseudoaneurysm.

    Hemosuccus pancreaticus (HP) is a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding, usually due to rupture of a visceral artery aneurysm in chronic pancreatitis. Other causes of HP are rare. We present a case of HP which occurred in a patient with chronic calcifying pancreatitis and a pancreatic pseudocyst documented by ultrasonography and computed tomography. With detectable fresh blood in the descending duodenum, an aneurysm in the pancreatic head was revealed by superior mesenteric angiography as the suspected origin of intermittent bleeding from the pancreatic duct. Because an artery feeding the pseudocyst could not be identified, angiographic embolization was not possible. Surgical resection or ligation was difficult by laparotomy; therefore, intraoperative packing of the pseudocyst with absorbable gelatin sponges was achieved via a cannula through a directly punctured site in the pseudocyst wall. The patient has been followed for 4.25 years with no further episodes of HP. It is possible that the packing of a pancreatic pseudocyst with gelatin sponges is a method that can be used in similar cases, where control of hemostasis is the primary concern. The packing of a pancreatic pseudocyst with gelatin sponges is a technique that can be performed not only via laparotomy but also via laparoscopy or concomitant angiography and ultrasonography.
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8/12. Endoscopic transgastric drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst with the use of Nd:YAG laser.

    Pancreatic pseudocysts have been successfully managed with endoscopic drainage recently. This report describes a case of endoscopic transgastric drainage using endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and an Nd:YAG laser. EUS was used to detect an optimal puncture site of the pseudocyst and to reduce the risk of bleeding and perforation. An Nd:YAG laser was used to minimize the risk of bleeding and to penetrate the thick wall of the pseudocyst. After transgastric cystgastrostomy was performed, an internal stent was placed between the pseudocyst and the stomach. There were no complications associated with endoscopic interventions. Complete resolution of the pseudocyst was observed. Endoscopic transgastric drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts is a recommended approach for selected patients with pancreatic pseudocysts that are uncomplicated and are located adjacent to the stomach. Safe and effective drainage can be achieved without hemorrhage and perforation with the use of EUS, an Nd:YAG laser, and a stent. Furthermore, the Nd:YAG laser facilitated passage through a markedly indurated pseudocyst wall and it seemed to be an effective instrument, especially for pseudocysts with a thick wall.
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9/12. Infected pancreatic necrosis possibly due to combined percutaneous aspiration, cystogastric pseudocyst drainage and injection of a sclerosant.

    This paper reports on a patient who was treated by percutaneous aspiration, instillation of a sclerosant (polidocanol) and cystogastric drainage for a post-acute pancreatic pseudocyst. Five weeks after admission to hospital for the first episode of an acute necrotizing pancreatitis, the 60-year-old man underwent a percutaneous, ultrasound-guided puncture and aspiration of a voluminous pancreatic pseudocyst. Ten days later, recurrent fluid collection led to a second puncture, combined with the injection of polidocanol (15 ml; 1%) into the cyst cavity. Since this treatment failed, a percutaneous cystogastric drain ("double--pigtail") was inserted five days later. After developing acute abdominal pain and incipient sepsis, the patient was sent for surgical intervention twelve days after the second treatment with percutaneous aspiration and injection of polidocanol. During the operation an infected pancreatic pseudocyst with extensive contaminated necrosis of the pancreas and duodenal perforation was found. Necrectomy was performed, followed by continuous lavage of the omental bursa. intensive care therapy was necessary for one week. Duodenal leakage persisted for nearly three weeks, the stopped spontaneously. The patient was discharged in quite a good state of health after 33 days of postoperative treatment. Although spontaneous development of infected pancreatic pseudocysts and pancreatic abscesses in necrotizing pancreatitis is known, a possible involvement of the drainage procedures, especially in combination with the injection of a sclerosant must be considered.
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10/12. Endoscopic management of pancreatic pseudocysts.

    pancreatic pseudocyst is a major complication of acute and chronic pancreatitis. Surgical drainage, the mainstay of therapy for this condition, is associated with 5% mortality, 25% morbidity, and 10% recurrence rates. Efforts to improve these figures and reduce the typically long hospitalizations have brought about percutaneous and endoscopic drainages. This article describes the endoscopic techniques and attempts to summarize their results based on a literature review. Before endoscopic drainage is carried out, other cystic lesions must be excluded with clinical history, computed tomography findings, and perhaps cyst fluid CEA content and cytology. Endoscopic techniques include wide transmural incision, transmural puncture and stenting, and transpapillary stenting. Either transgastric or transduodenal drainages can be carried out depending on the proximity of the pseudocyst to the gastrointestinal lumen. endosonography has become an integral part of the transmural procedure because it can help diagnose cystic neoplasms, localize pseudocysts, detect submucosal vessels, and measure the cyst to mucosal distance for transmural punctures. Temporary nasocystic drains are often used to complement stenting during the initial treatment phase. overall, the endoscopic experience in expert hands is associated with 94% initial technical success, 90% cyst resolution, and 16% recurrence rates. Additional nonendoscopic interventions, mostly surgical, are necessary in 17% of patients. Complication rate is 20%, with < 1% mortality. These data suggest that endoscopic drainage should become an accepted modality in the treatment of pseudocysts. Because of significant technical difficulty and potential risks, endoscopic drainages should only be carried out by experienced endoscopists and at well-equipped facilities.
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