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11/37. Small-bowel obstruction secondary to subcutaneous small-bowel entrapment: a late complication of laparostomy for necrotizing pancreatitis.

    Laparostomy is a well recognized strategy for the management of patients who have necrotizing pancreatitis and may require multiple re-intervention. The open wound can be left to heal through a process of granulation and contraction. This article describes intestinal obstruction secondary to entrapment of a loop of small bowel within the cicatrix of the contracting cutaneous scar. An awareness of the potential for entrapment of the small bowel in the healing scar is critical for clinicians using laparostomy in the management of acute necrotizing pancreatitis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = acute necrotizing, necrotizing
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12/37. Necrotizing pancreatitis during pregnancy: a rare cause and review of the literature.

    Acute pancreatitis is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain during pregnancy, and rarely progresses to the necrotizing from of the disease in this clinical setting. Hyperlipidemia is an infrequent cause of acute pancreatitis. Whereas only 100 cases of hyperlipidemia-induced necrotizing pancreatitis have been reported in the literature to date, all of the cases were mild in severity and responsive to conservative medical management. Herein we present a case of life-threatening necrotizing pancreatitis, which developed in a hyperlipidemic pregnant woman and required multiple peripartum pancreatic necrosectomies. Additionally, we review the evaluation of pregnant patients with abdominal pain, the pathophysiology of hyperlipidemia-induced necrotizing pancreatitis, and the operative care of this challenging group of patients, revisiting an innovative technique for management of the retroperitoneum.
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ranking = 0.047940935913767
keywords = necrotizing
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13/37. plasma exchange for hypertriglyceridemic acute necrotizing pancreatitis: report of two cases.

    We report two cases of hypertriglyceridemic necrotizing pancreatitis treated by plasma exchange (PE). The outcome of each case was quite different according to the timing of PE. A 36 year old man presented with abdominal pain, and a diagnosis of severe acute pancreatitis was made. His serum triglyceride (TG) level was 6,460 mg/dl. He did not undergo PE at first, however, his condition never improved and PE was performed 20 days after the onset of his illness. Finally, he died of multiple organ failure and sepsis. In contrast, a 52 year old man with acute necrotizing pancreatitis was referred to our department. He received PE quickly after hospital admission. His serum TG level, which was 3,540 mg/dl at hospital admission, dramatically returned to normal limits, and he was discharged from the hospital 62 days after admission. The prognosis of severe necrotizing pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia is extremely poor. PE should be applied for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemic necrotizing pancreatitis immediately after its onset.
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ranking = 4.7363248524743
keywords = acute necrotizing, necrotizing
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14/37. Conservative management of infected necrosis complicating severe acute pancreatitis.

    OBJECTIVES: patients with severe necrotizing pancreatitis are at risk for infection, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Most patients with infected pancreatic tissue require surgical intervention (necrosectomy), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A subset of these patients can be managed successfully with conservative management combined with prolonged courses of antibiotics. methods: Three cases of severe acute pancreatitis seen at our institution are described, in which the patients developed aspirate-proven pancreatic infections. The patients were nonetheless stable from a clinical standpoint and were treated with long courses of antibiotics known to penetrate the pancreas; emergent surgery was deferred. RESULTS: In two patients, surgery was completely avoided, with good clinical outcome. In the third patient, elective surgery was undertaken 12 wk after the episode of acute pancreatitis, to perform necrosectomy on organized pancreatic necrosis and to evaluate the patient's biliary tree. There were no postoperative complications. CONCLUSIONS: A subset of patients with severe acute pancreatitis complicated by infection can be successfully managed with long term antibiotics and other supportive measures. High risk necrosectomy can, in some instances, be delayed or avoided entirely.
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ranking = 0.011985233978442
keywords = necrotizing
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15/37. Severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis associated with lipoprotein lipase deficiency in childhood.

    An 11-year-old girl with lipoprotein lipase deficiency experienced recurring episodes of abdominal pain. She initially underwent appendectomy for suspected appendicitis; however, the appendix was normal. pancreatitis was subsequently identified as the cause of her pain.
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ranking = 3.7602953204312
keywords = acute necrotizing, necrotizing
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16/37. Endoscopic clipping of a colocutaneous fistula following necrotizing pancreatitis: case report.

    The case described here is of a 73-year-old male patient who developed a colocutaneous fistula following necrotizing pancreatitis, diagnosed by imaging and treated endoscopically by the application of an endoclip. Pancreatic and gastrointestinal fistulas, common complications of surgery for necrotizing pancreatitis, frequently require surgical treatment. Colonic perforations are the most difficult to treat surgically on account of the risk of peritonitis. A technique, namely, endoscopic clips application, has recently been developed to close anastomotic leakages and perforations of the oesophagus, stomach and colon. In the patient described here, endoscopic repair was technically easy and the good result was confirmed within a few days. In order to repair colonic fistulas following pancreatitis, application of endoclips could, in our opinion, provide a useful therapeutic option, feasible in selected patients.
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ranking = 0.07191140387065
keywords = necrotizing
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17/37. Necrotizing pancreatitis after radiofrequency destruction of pancreatic tumours.

    BACKGROUND: Intraoperative radiofrequency (RF) can be used to treat multiple small pancreatic tumours. patients AND methods: Two patients with multiple pancreatic metastases from renal cancer were treated with RF destruction of the pancreatic tumours. The first was treated with a monopolar device and the second with a bipolar device. A high temperature (>90 degrees C) was used, and one patient underwent cooling of the intrapancreatic common bile duct. RESULTS: The destruction of tumours was effective. However, the two patients presented post-operatively a severe necrotizing pancreatitis, with life-threatening hemorrhagic complications. CONCLUSION: RF destruction of pancreatic tumours is dangerous with current devices.
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ranking = 0.011985233978442
keywords = necrotizing
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18/37. Nutrition in the management of necrotizing pancreatitis.

    Comparative trials have shown that enteral feeding (EN) is better than total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in acute pancreatitis. However, the following case report of a 64-year-old man with necrotizing pancreatitis suggests that EN may cause complications in patients with ductular damage. In the second week, this patient with acute pancreatitis developed >50% pancreatic necrosis, resulting in gastroduodenal obstruction and pain, leading to the use of TPN. A trial of EN delivered past the obstruction was associated with increased abdominal pain, leukocytosis, and pancreatic fluid accumulation. Measurement of the pancreatic response to feeding showed a 90% reduction in enzyme secretion compared to healthy volunteers, but no change in the uptake of stable isotope labeled amino acids into secreted trypsin. This suggests that enzymes were being synthesized by the remaining pancreatic tissue, but that some of the secretions were leaking into the inflammatory mass. Symptoms resolved after reinstitution of TPN and bowel rest. A further trial of EN was successful when the tube was advanced to the distal jejunum to avoid pancreatic stimulation. After 3 weeks of home EN, he was readmitted for surgical evacuation of an infected fluid collection. Although enteral feeding is generally better than TPN in the nutritional management of acute pancreatitis, there may be a subgroup of patients with ductular damage due to necrotizing disease in whom TPN and pancreatic rest may be safer.
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ranking = 0.07191140387065
keywords = necrotizing
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19/37. Pneumoretroperitoneum in two patients with clostridium perfringens necrotizing pancreatitis.

    Pancreatic gas gangrene is an uncommon and often fatal complication of acute pancreatitis, due to the sporulating anaerobe clostridium perfringens. C. perfringens is a normal constituent of colonic flora, but infects the pancreas by either transmural spread from the colon or via the biliary tree. Only three reported cases in the world literature describe acute pancreatitis with pneumoretroperitoneum and clostridial infection. Two separate cases, at the same institution, of acute pancreatitis complicated by C. perfringens were analyzed. The records of patients were reviewed for admission history, laboratory and radiology results, intensive care support, surgical intervention, and outcome. Retroperitoneal air was visualized early in the clinical course of both patients by computed tomography. Early surgical debridement, drainage, parental antibiotics, and reexploration resulted in an uncomplicated recovery. Early computed tomography in patients with suspected necrotizing pancreatitis contributes to early intervention and may advantageously enhance survival.
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ranking = 0.059926169892209
keywords = necrotizing
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20/37. Linezolid-resistant enterococcus faecium and enterococcus faecalis isolated from a septic patient: report of first isolates in germany.

    Here we report the first German case of necrotizing pancreatitis, peritonitis, and septic shock caused by linezolid-resistant enterococcus faecium and enterococcus faecalis.
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ranking = 0.011985233978442
keywords = necrotizing
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