Cases reported "Pancreatitis"

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1/258. Acute hemorrhage into the peritoneal cavity--a complication of chronic pancreatitis with pseudocyst: a case report from clinical practice.

    Acute hemorrhage due to a pseudocyst of the pancreas is a dangerous complication of chronic pancreatitis (CP). Without operative treatment, mortality is as high as 90%. Immediate recognition of this complication as well as urgent operative treatment allowing the survival of 70% of patients is imperative. Described is the case of a patient with CP and pseudocyst in which hyperamylasemia and unclarified anemia developed following sudden abdominal pain. The suspicion of hemorrhage into the peritoneal cavity was confirmed by selective visceral angiography showing hemorrhage from the splenic artery in the region of the hilus of the spleen. Operative treatment was successful. During the procedure, a ligature was applied to the hemorrhaging splenic artery and a splenectomy was carried out with 2500 ml of bloody contents being removed from the abdominal cavity. Acute hemorrhage into the peritoneal cavity as a complication of chronic pancreatitis with pseudocyst (CPP) requires immediate identification, confirmation by visceral angiography, and urgent operative treatment.
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2/258. pancreatitis caused by duodenal duplication.

    The authors present the investigations and surgical treatment of two cases of duodenal cystic duplication. abdominal pain and gastroesophageal reflux were the most important symptoms and signs associated with an history of recurrent acute pancreatitis. Computed tomography scan, ultrasound examination, and cholangiography confirmed preoperatively the diagnosis, and a transduodenal surgical approach was carried out in both children. A simple marsupialization of the cyst was performed in the former, and a sphincterotomy with papillosphincteroplasty was associated in the latter. The diagnosis was confirmed by microscopy, and both the children are asymptomatic after a 14 and 18 months of follow-up. This report focuses on the importance of the cholangiopancreatography for every child presenting with recurrent, unexplained bouts of acute pancreatitis, and underlines the technical surgical aspects on the basis of the anatomic identification of the malformation.
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3/258. Nonoperative management of pancreatic pseudocysts. Problems in differential diagnosis.

    CONCLUSION: The evaluation of pancreatic cystic lesions entails a misdiagnosis risk. awareness of the problem, knowledge of the natural history of these lesions, and meticulous posttreatment follow-up can reduce the consequences of diagnostic errors. If all these precautions are adopted, pancreatic pseudocysts can be safely treated nonoperatively. BACKGROUND: The accurate diagnosis of pancreatic cystic lesions remains a problem. The aim of this study was to ascertain the incidence of and the reasons the diagnostic errors occurred in a series of pseudocysts drained percutaneously and to compare these data to those reported in the literature. methods: Data from 70 patients bearing one or more pseudocysts who underwent a percutaneous drainage were reviewed. The pretreatment workup included medical history, physical examination, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) scans, amylase assay in both the serum and the cystic fluid, culture and cytology of the cystic fluid. After removal of the drainage, the minimum follow-up period was 12 mo. RESULTS: Four patients died, and two cancer-associated pseudocysts were identified before removal of the drainage. Sixty-four patients were followed up for a mean of 51.9 mo (range 12-154 mo). A third cancer and a mucinous cystic tumor, fully communicating with the main duct, were further detected during this period.
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4/258. Management of chylothorax after thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy.

    Thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy is a minimally invasive procedure used in the treatment of recalcitrant abdominal pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic carcinoma. chylothorax, an uncommon complication of thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy, may lead to a protracted, costly hospital course of treatment usually consisting of central venous hyperalimentation, restricted oral intake, and tube thoracostomy. In our series of 25 patients who underwent thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy, 2 developed postoperative chylothorax. Both patients failed conservative management and ultimately underwent operative reintervention, at which time, leaking lymphatics were easily identified and closed using minimally invasive techniques. On the basis of this experience, we advocate early thoracoscopic reintervention in patients with chylothorax after thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy.
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5/258. Acute pancreatitis after gynecologic and obstetric surgery.

    OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to evaluate the prevalence and comorbidity of acute postoperative pancreatitis after gynecologic and obstetric surgery. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed the Mayo Medical Center surgical database (January 1953-January 1997) to identify all confirmed cases of acute pancreatitis occurring within the standard 6-week postoperative convalescence after obstetric and gynecologic surgical procedures. pancreatitis as a result of concurrent pancreatic or biliary surgery was excluded. Pertinent clinical data were reviewed. RESULTS: Eleven cases of postoperative pancreatitis were identified, with an overall incidence of 1 in 17,000 surgical procedures. Postoperative pancreatitis was more common after obstetric surgery. Identifiable risk factors were noted in 45% of cases, with occult cholelithiasis the predominant factor. Presenting signs and symptoms were primarily epigastric pain, oliguria, and ileus. Significant morbidity or mortality was noted in 27% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: Acute postoperative pancreatitis is a rare complication after gynecologic and obstetric surgery. signs and symptoms of pancreatitis are nonspecific in the postoperative setting. Prompt diagnosis and supportive therapy are essential to minimize morbidity and mortality.
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6/258. Management of severe acute pancreatitis with a somatostatin analog in a patient undergoing surgery for dissecting thoracic aneurysm: report of a case.

    A patient who was admitted to our hospital to undergo surgery for a dissecting thoracic aneurysm suffered preoperatively from severe acute pancreatitis with pancreatic pseudocysts. Computerized tomography (CT) demonstrated the presence of new fluid collection around the cyst with the absence of pancreatic necrosis. He was given a somatostatin analog (sandostatin), which was effective in decreasing the abdominal symptoms, leukocyte counts, and the serum C-reactive/protein level. A CT scan revealed that the pancreatic pseudocyst and peripancreatic fluid collection had disappeared. Although somatostatin has been reported to be ineffective for acute pancreatitis with necrosis, pancreatitis without necrosis may regress after treatment with sandostatin. This is probably due to its suppressive effect on the exocrine function, thus resulting in a decrease of pancreatic juice infiltration.
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7/258. Laparoscopic cystogastrostomy for pancreatic pseudocyst is safe and effective.

    Between March 1997 and March 1998, three consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic cystogastrostomy for persistent giant retrogastric pancreatic pseudocyst complicating an attack of acute pancreatitis. The mean cyst diameter was 15 /- 1 cm (range 14-16). The procedure was performed with four trocars. The anterior wall of the stomach was opened longitudinally. The pseudocyst was entered through the posterior wall of the stomach. A cystogastrostomy was created by suturing the margins of the communication by interrupted nonabsorbable sutures. The mean operative time was 123 /- 15 min, and there were no postoperative complications. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 4 /- 1 days. Computed tomography demonstrated complete resolution of the pseudocyst. Laparoscopic cystogastrostomy represents a good therapeutic option for persistent retrogastric pancreatic pseudocyst.
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8/258. Massive intraperitoneal bleeding from tryptic erosions of the splenic vein. Another cause of sudden deterioration during recovery from acute pancreatitis.

    Acute bleeding is a rare, but frequently fatal complication of pancreatitis. Bleeding into the gastrointestinal tract may occur owing to gastric or duodenal erosions, peptic ulcers, or varices in the esophagus, stomach, or colon following splenic vein thrombosis, or intraperitoneally from eroded vessels in pancreatic pseudocysts or expanding pseudoaneurysms. We report a novel case of massive intraperitoneal bleeding owing to tryptic erosions of the splenic vein in a patient recovering from acute pancreatitis. diagnosis of the bleeding was made by ultrasound and ultrasound-guided blood aspiration. The source of the bleeding was identified intraoperatively, and a left-sided pancreatectomy and a splenectomy were performed.
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9/258. pancreatitis following intestinal bypass for obesity.

    Three out of 24 patients undergoing intestinal bypass in the treatment of morbid obesity have developed acute pancreatitis in the postoperative period. All three had undergone end-to-end jejunoileal bypass. This serious postoperative complication has been infrequently recorded. Its significance and possible aetiological factors are discussed.
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10/258. Acute pancreatitis following resection of juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    A case of acute pancreatitis following resection of a juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm is reported. The patient was a 73 year old man who underwent resection of a juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. The aneurysm was repaired with a 20 mm. gelatin coated Dacron graft. Proximal control of the aneurysm was performed with supraceliac aortic cross clamping. The clamping time was 50 minutes. Postoperatively, he developed progressive abdominal distension with deterioration of renal and pulmonary function necessitating relaparotomy on the 7th postoperative day. The second operation revealed evidence of saponification and fat necrosis in the omentum. The pancreas was edematous and swollen compatible with acute pancreatitis. The aortic graft and other intraabdominal organs appeared normal. Despite intensive supportive care, the patient died 2 weeks later from multiple system organ failure. The possible causes of acute pancreatitis following aortic surgery described in the literature are 1. systemic and regional hypoperfusion, 2. atheromatous emboli to arteries supplying the pancreas and 3. direct trauma to the pancreas during the operation from retractors or surgical dissection. All of which may be the etiology of acute pancreatitis in our patient. Avoidance of such factors during aortic surgery is recommended to prevent this potentially fatal complication.
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