Cases reported "Pancytopenia"

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1/3. The role of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in a myelodysplastic syndrome secondary to congenital deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4.

    OBJECTIVE: myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by peripheral cytopenia and ineffective hematopoiesis. In adult-onset MDS and in certain inherited marrow failure syndromes, apoptosis is increased and is mediated mainly through activation of the Fas pathway. It is unclear whether the various myelodysplastic disorders share the same apoptosis pathways. I investigated apoptosis pathways in a patient with refractory cytopenia with ring sideroblasts associated with congenital 4p deletion to determine the mechanism for bone marrow failure. methods: Marrow cells and lymphoblast cell lines generated from peripheral blood were analyzed for apoptosis and protein expression by flow cytometry, Western blot, and confocal microscopy, either directly or after gamma irradiation (15 G). Cell viability after treatment with inhibitors of specific apoptosis pathways was also determined. RESULTS: Compared to controls, the patient's marrow and lymphoblastoid cells showed significantly higher apoptosis rates and activation of caspase-3. Investigation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway showed a consistent pro-apoptosis profile, namely, upregulation of Bax, Bax-alpha, cytochrome c, and Apaf1, and low bcl-2. Differences between the patient's and the normal cells were further accentuated after irradiation; p53 expression was strikingly higher in the patient only after irradiation. In contrast, Fas and FADD expression on the patient's and the control's cells were comparable. Addition of caspase 3 or caspase 9 inhibitors markedly increased patient cell viablity, but blocking anti-Fas antibody did not. CONCLUSION: The ineffective hematopoiesis in this case is explained by increased apoptosis and is linked to hyperactivation of the mitochondrial cell death machinery and not to the Fas pathway, which might be secondary to an intramitochondrial defect. This information is crucial because the development of anti-apoptotic agents for the treatment of MDS may not be universally efficacious and should target the specific derangement.
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ranking = 1
keywords = apoptosis
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2/3. Immunosuppressive therapy with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine for prolonged marrow failure after hemophagocytic syndrome.

    We describe a patient with typical hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) in whom pancytopenia was refractory to steroid pulse therapy. He was successfully treated with immunosuppressive therapy using antithymocyte globulin (ATG) and cyclosporine (CyA), which is known to be effective for aplastic anemia (AA). Activation of histiocytes occurs in HPS as a response to several cytokines produced by activated T lymphocytes, while apoptosis of hematopoietic stem cells in AA is caused by T lymphocyte-derived cytokines. The response of this patient indicated that both diseases may have some similar immune-mediated conditions involving the activation of T lymphocytes and that intensive immunosuppressive therapy with ATG and CyA might be a useful strategy for steroid-resistant HPS.
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ranking = 0.076923076923077
keywords = apoptosis
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3/3. Bilateral renal agenesis, cardiac hypertrophy and pancytopenia, a new syndrome?

    We report a fetus with an unusual combination of features including bilateral renal agenesis, hydrops, cardiac hypertrophy and pancytopenia. There was haematological evidence of apoptosis with nuclear degeneration of megakaryocytes. The combination of structural anomalies associated with pancytopenia has many features reminiscent of Fanconi's anaemia although mitomycin C studies were normal. There was no evidence of infection as a cause for the pancytopenia. We suggest that fetal blood sampling should be considered in similar cases with renal agenesis. Some may have a milder form of pancytopenia and may not present with hydrops thereby not prompting further haematological investigation.
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ranking = 0.076923076923077
keywords = apoptosis
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