Cases reported "Pancytopenia"

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1/242. Isovaleric acidemia with promyelocytic myeloproliferative syndrome.

    Isovaleric acidemia, an autosomal recessive disorder, is due to isovaleryl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency and is one of the branched-chain aminoacidopathies. Isovaleric acidemia may present in the neonatal period with an acute episode of severe metabolic acidosis, ketosis, and vomiting and may lead to coma and death in the first 2 months of life. This report concerns an infant who presented at 10 days of age because of lethargy, poor feeding, hypothermia, cholestasis, and thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and profound pancytopenia. death occurred at 19 days of age. autopsy showed mild fatty change in the liver and extramedullary hematopoiesis, generalized escherichia coli sepsis, and myelodysplasia of the bone marrow with arrest of the myeloid series at the promyelocytic stage. The appearance resembled promyelocytic leukemia, but the diagnostic 15:17 translocation was not present. The maturation arrest in granulopoiesis in isovaleric acidemia appears to be most likely due to a direct metabolic effect on granulocyte precursor cells.
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2/242. Persisting bone marrow aplasia following interferon-alpha combined with ara-C for chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    A 37-year-old man with a newly diagnosed chronic myelogenous leukemia received induction therapy with hydroxyurea and interferon-alpha, and maintenance therapy with low-dose ara-C and interferon-alpha. Subsequent to a rapid hematological remission, a continuously aggravating pancytopenia with bone marrow aplasia developed which persisted after withdrawal of maintenance therapy. bone marrow examination exhibited aplastic areas and residual hematopoiesis with impaired maturation; cytogenetically, there was a 100% persistence of philadelphia chromosome-positive metaphases. By allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, a complete reconstitution of hematopoiesis was achieved.
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3/242. Bone marrow aplasia with prominent atypical plasmacytic proliferation preceding acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    A two-year-old boy presented with pancytopenia. bone marrow examination revealed an aplastic marrow with prominent immature plasma cell proliferation, which mimicked plasma cell leukemia. immunohistochemistry, however, revealed a polyclonal population consistent with a reactive process, excluding plasma cell neoplasia. Administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor resulted in recovery of normal hematopoiesis with resolution of plasmacytosis. Seven months later, the patient had an elevated white blood cell count and bone marrow findings diagnostic of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of bone marrow aplasia with prominent polyclonal plasmacytosis presenting as a prodrome of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood.
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4/242. Acute leukemia following prolonged cytotoxic agent therapy.

    1. Nine patients in whom acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL) developed following prolonged alkylating agent therapy are described. Five of the patients received no radiotherapy. The conditions treated were: Hodgkin's disease (four patients), primary amyloidosis, primary macroglobulinemia, malignant lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and carcinoma of the tonsil. 2. Prior to the advent of chemotherapy, this complication was not observed in large series of patients with lymphoproliferative disorders and multiple myeloma. However, the medical literature now contains at least 125 other detailed reports of ANLL developing after prolonged cytotoxic agent therapy. 3. multiple myeloma and Hodgkin's disease, both of which commonly have good responses to chemotherapy, predominate as the underlying diseases. However, 35% of the case reports involve patients with other illnesses, including 12 patients who did not have neoplasms. 4. More than half of the patients developing ANLL have received chemotherapy alone without radiotherapy. 5. At least half of the patients developing ANLL experienced long periods of significant cytopenia during therapy, often with documentation of bone marrow dysplasia. 6. The wide variety of drugs associated with this complication suggests that any cytotoxic agent may be leukemogenic. However, alkylating agents overwhelmingly predominate as the class of compounds which are most often associated with terminal ANLL. 7. The vast majority of patients reported in the literature with ANLL complicating underlying malignancies have received cytotoxic drugs for prolonged periods (median 3 1/2 years) and leukemia developed most commonly 3 to 5 years after the diagnosis of the underlying disease. Most of these patients benefited from therapy and survived longer (median 5 years) than historical control of untreated patients. 8. The leukemogenic potential in man of prolonged cytotoxic agents therapy, especially with alkylating agents, seems to be well established. This evidence admonishes against the prolonged use of these drugs in non-fatal disorders. 9. More accurate assessment of risk: benefit ratios awaits the results of prospective controlled studies. The results of these studies could also lead to significant modifications in recommendations for long-term maintenance therapy with cytotoxic agents.
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5/242. Shwachman-diamond syndrome: early bone marrow transplantation in a high risk patient and new clues to pathogenesis.

    Shwachman-diamond syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by exocrine pancreas insufficiency, metaphyseal dysostosis and bone marrow dysfunction. Recurrent severe bacterial infections and susceptibility to leukaemia are the major causes of morbidity and mortality occurring preferentially in patients with pancytopenia and features of myelodysplasia. Here we report a patient with SDS leading to recurrent bacterial infections and a deteriorating condition since early infancy. Extensive investigations disclosed severe pancytopenia, myelodysplasia and a clonal cytogenetic abnormality, inv(14)(q11q32), as risk factors of leukaemic transformation. He therefore underwent allogeneic geno-identical bone marrow transplantation which resulted in correction of all haematological and immunological abnormalities within an 18-month follow up period.Conclusion bone marrow transplantation may be considered early as a valuable treatment option especially in high risk Schwachman-diamond syndrome patients anticipating malignant transformation, life-threatening severe infections or further organ damage.
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6/242. ciprofloxacin-induced bone marrow depression.

    ciprofloxacin, a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent, is generally considered to be a safe drug. However, occasionally it may have life-threatening complications. Two instances of bone marrow failure following use of ciprofloxacin are reported. In one case, the bone marrow reverted to normal following withdrawal of the drug. In the other case, the patient succumbed to irreversible bone marrow depression leading to severe thrombocytopenia and uncontrolled bleeding. This could have been an idiosyncratic reaction.
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7/242. Ataxia-pancytopenia syndrome.

    We report on a Mexican girl who developed cerebellar ataxia at age 3 years and pancytopenia at age 13 years. Cerebral computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of severe cerebellar atrophy. Telangiectasias were not present; immunoglobulins and alpha-fetoprotein levels were normal. Cytogenetic studies showed no evidence of spontaneous chromosome aberrations, a normal rate of diepoxybutane (DEB) and mitomycin C (MMC)-induced chromosome aberrations, but an increased response to bleomycin. The phenotype support the diagnosis of ataxia-pancytopenia syndrome, although monosomy of chromosome 7 was not found in bone marrow. The cytogenetic studies suggest that this may be a chromosomal instability disorder.
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8/242. Proliferative behavior of hemopoietic cells in preleukemia and overt leukemia observed in one patient.

    Hemopoietic cell proliferation was studied in a patient suffering from preleukemia characterized by peripheral pancytopenia and hypercellular bone marrow with ineffective erythropoiesis. Two years later when overt acute myelogenous leukemia had developed the study was repeated. The kinetics of proliferation were investigated by a new method which allows evaluation of the rate and time of dna synthesis in individual morphologically defined cells. erythropoiesis was found ineffective to the same degree in both stages of disease. The rate of erythroid cell proliferation, however, was reduced in overt leukemia only. The myeloid system showed a grossly reduced production rate of myeloblasts in preleukemia whilst the same parameter was strongly increased in leukemia. This high production rate of myeloblasts in overt leukemia was interpreted as indication of a far-reaching self-maintenance of the myeloblast pool in this stage of disease. The proliferative activity of the individual myeloblasts was reduced already in preleukemia, and even more so in leukemia. In order to explain the amplification of the myeloblast pool with the onset of overt leukemia a change in the mode of myeloblast divisions is assumed. For this a transition from steady state to some degree of exponential growth gives the most plausible explanation.
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9/242. Successful bone marrow transplantation in an adult patient with reactive hemophagocytic syndrome associated with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    We report an adult case of reactive hemophagocytic syndrome (RHS) associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who received emergency bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Despite methylprednisolone pulse therapy, high-dose gamma-globulin, and chemotherapy containing etoposide, the pancytopenia progressed. After informed consent, the patient underwent syngeneic BMT using melphalan as the conditioning regimen. The patient has been well without relapse of RHS and MDS for more than 2 years after BMT. This result suggests that the above strategy, including BMT, should be considered for the treatment of adult RHS associated with hematological malignancy.
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10/242. Abnormal pulmonary accumulation of indium-111 chloride in pneumocystis carinii pneumonia as detected by bone marrow scintigraphy.

    PURPOSE: Unusual pulmonary uptake of In-111 chloride in a patient with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and autoimmune hepatitis is described. METHOD: In-111 chloride bone marrow scintigraphy was performed to evaluate the bone marrow activity associated with pancytopenia in a 56-year-old woman with autoimmune hepatitis. RESULTS: An In-111 chloride bone marrow scan showed increased pulmonary uptake predominantly in both upper lung fields. P. carinii pneumonia was seen to be developing as an immunocompromised complication after treatment for autoimmune hepatitis. CONCLUSION: When In-111 chloride bone marrow scintigraphy shows increased uptake in the lungs of immunocompromised patients, a combined opportunistic inflammatory disease such as P. carinii pneumonia should be considered in the diagnosis.
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