Cases reported "Papilledema"

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1/4. Optic perineuritis: clinical and radiographic features.

    BACKGROUND: Optic perineuritis is an uncommon variety of orbital inflammatory disease that is distinct from demyelinating optic neuritis. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and radiographic features of idiopathic optic perineuritis, with particular emphasis on those features that help to distinguish this condition from optic neuritis. methods: We reviewed the medical records of 14 patients with optic perineuritis who were seen in 2 neuro-ophthalmology clinics. RESULTS: patients ranged in age from 24 to 60 years; 5 were older than 50 years. All patients had visual loss, eye pain, or both. The visual acuity was 20/20 or better in 8 of the 15 eyes. The results of visual field testing were normal in 2 eyes, and a paracentral scotoma or an arcuate defect was seen in 7. magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated circumferential enhancement around the optic nerve, sometimes with intraorbital extension. Response to corticosteroids was dramatic; however, 4 patients had a relapse with lowering of the dose. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to those with optic neuritis, patients with optic perineuritis are often older at onset and are more likely to show sparing of central vision. magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrate enhancement around, rather than within, the optic nerve. Response to corticosteroids is more dramatic than in patients with optic neuritis, and patients are more likely to experience recurrence after stopping treatment.
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ranking = 1
keywords = demyelinating
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2/4. optic nerve sheath fenestration for intracranial hypertension associated with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    The authors report a case of papilledema in a 61-year-old woman with chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy. The cerebrospinal fluid protein level was elevated (2.68 to 4.51 g/L), as was the cerebro-spinal fluid opening pressure (27 to 40 cm H2O). A unilateral optic nerve sheath fenestration proved to be effective in preserving vision, and the papilledema resolved completely.
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ranking = 5
keywords = demyelinating
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3/4. association of multiple sclerosis and intracranial hypertension.

    Three patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for both multiple sclerosis and pseudotumor cerebri. Although coincidence is possible, intracranial hypertension may be a manifestation of demyelinating disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = demyelinating
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4/4. Bilateral anterior ischemic optic neuropathy following influenza vaccination.

    optic neuritis is an occasional complication of vaccination. Visual loss can be unilateral or bilateral, and most patients recover substantially without treatment. The presumptive mechanism is an immune-mediated demyelinating injury of the optic nerve. We report two patients who had permanent visual loss following influenza vaccination. Their pattern of visual loss, segmental optic disc changes, and failure of visual recovery were atypical for demyelinating optic neuritis and reminiscent of a primary ischemic injury to the optic nerve. We speculate that an immune complex-mediated vasculopathy following vaccination can cause anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Clinicians should be aware of this entity because of the less favorable prognosis for visual recovery in these cases.
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ranking = 2
keywords = demyelinating
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