Cases reported "Papilledema"

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1/234. Bilateral optic disk edema caused by sarcoidosis mimicking pseudotumor cerebri.

    PURPOSE: To present a case of retrobulbar optic nerve and chiasm sarcoidosis that mimicked pseudotumor cerebri. methods: A 34-year-old, thin, black woman presented with transient visual obscurations, normal visual acuity, bilateral optic disk edema, and enlarged blind spots. Clinical, medical, and radiologic evaluations were consistent with pseudotumor cerebri. The patient improved while taking acetazolamide, but 6 months later her symptoms worsened. neuroimaging disclosed enhancement of the optic nerve and chiasm. RESULTS: Despite administration of intravenous corticosteroids, the patient's vision worsened. Bilateral optic nerve sheath fenestrations were performed, and pathology disclosed sarcoidosis. CONCLUSION: sarcoidosis of the optic nerves and chiasm may mimic pseudotumor cerebri.
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2/234. color Doppler image of central retinal artery of eyes with an intraconal mass.

    PURPOSE: Retinal ischemia secondary to hypoperfusion of the central retinal artery is recognized as one factor that may contribute to the development of loss of vision in eyes with intraorbital tumors. We study intraorbital tumors which produce motility disturbances and visual problems by color Doppler imaging to evaluate this factor. methods: We examined the central retinal artery velocities of 3 patients with disc edema caused by intraconal masses (2 cavernous hemangiomas and 1 presumed optic nerve glioma) via color Doppler imaging. RESULTS: The time-velocity waveform demonstrated abnormally high vascular resistance in the central retinal artery of all affected eyes in the primary position compared with the normal waveform seen in the other eyes. We compared the pulsatility index of eyes with an intraconal mass and contralateral, control eyes using Student's t test for paired samples and significant differences were noted between both groups (p< 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Intraconal tumors could produce increased pressure in the optic nerve sheath and the optic nerve tissue which could be associated with impaired retinal and optic nerve blood flow and the subsequent amaurosis encountered with intraorbital tumors.
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3/234. pseudotumor cerebri in children receiving recombinant human growth hormone.

    PURPOSE: This article represents the first report in the ophthalmology literature of an association between pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). DESIGN: Noncomparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Three children receiving rhGH for short stature with turner syndrome, Jeune syndrome, or down syndrome. methods: Children underwent full ocular examination. After papilledema was identified, patients underwent lumbar puncture and imaging with either magnetic resonance imaging or computerized tomography. Treatment was under the guidance of the primary physician or neurosurgeon. The rhGH was discontinued in all children. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: visual acuity and evaluation of the optic nerve for resolution of papilledema were followed at each examination. RESULTS: In all three cases, papilledema resolved with the cessation of rhGH, and treatment with acetazolamide or prednisone. visual acuity was unchanged in case 1, decreased by two to three lines in case 2, and was inconsistent in case 3. One child (case 2) required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for persistent elevation of intracranial pressure. CONCLUSION: There appears to be a causal relationship between the initiation of rhGH with the development of PTC. Children should have a complete ophthalmic evaluation if they report headache or visual disturbances. Baseline examination with routine follow-up should be instituted when children cannot adequately communicate.
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4/234. Central retinal vein occlusion during remission of ulcerative colitis.

    BACKGROUND: Retinal vascular disease is a rare complication of ulcerative colitis. CASE: We report a patient who developed unilateral nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) (papillophlebitis) without any other retinal vascular disease during remission of ulcerative colitis. OBSERVATIONS: The best-corrected visual acuities were 1.5 OD and 0.7 OS. Dilated and tortuous retinal veins and retinal bleeding were seen in the left eye. macular edema and leakage from the papilla and the retinal veins of the left eye were evident on fluorescein angiography. After increased dosage of systemic prednisolone was prescribed, the retinal vascular changes resulting from CRVO (papillophlebitis) in the left eye gradually abated. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal vascular diseases should be monitored during both remission and activation of intestinal symptoms of ulcerative colitis.
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5/234. Visual loss in idiopathic intracranial hypertension after resolution of papilledema.

    PURPOSE: To demonstrate that progressive visual field loss may occur after resolution of papilledema in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and persistently elevated intracranial pressure. methods: A patient with idiopathic intracranial hypertension was evaluated with serial Humphrey automated static perimetry after initial treatment and resolution of papilledema. RESULTS: The patient developed recurrent headache and elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Optic nerve head appearance did not change. Automated perimetry demonstrated reproducible, worsening visual field loss; mean deviation decreased 11 dB in each eye. Visual field defects resolved after optic nerve sheath fenestration. CONCLUSIONS: Increased intracranial pressure caused visual field loss after resolution of papilledema. Optic nerve sheath fenestration improved visual function in this patient.
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6/234. Optic nerve edema as a consequence of respiratory disease.

    The authors describe a patient with bilateral papilledema, visual field abnormalities, poorly reactive pupils, meningeal enhancement on cranial MRI, and diffuse brain parenchymal hypervascularity. The opening pressure at the time of lumbar puncture was normal, and results of other CSF studies were normal. All abnormalities resolved with home oxygen therapy.
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7/234. Unilateral papilloedema after hepatitis b vaccination in a migraine patient. A case report including forensic aspects.

    PURPOSE: To report on a unilateral optic nerve reaction appearing 9-10 hours after vaccination against hepatitis b. methods: To describe the case and discuss the underlying mechanisms. There was a scintillating scotoma leaving a permanent inferior notch in the visual field, but central vision was left normal and with only a slight affection of colour perception. Shortly the optic nervehead appeared engorged, then slightly ischaemic, but was hardly left with evidence of atrophy. RESULTS: Immune-based reactions could hardly be held responsible, multiple sclerosis was unlikely, and ultrasonography excluded optic nervehead drusen. An optic nerve migraine mechanism is probable, possibly with the vaccination having acted as the trigger.
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8/234. Syndrome simulating pseudotumor cerebri caused by partial transverse venous sinus obstruction in metastatic prostate cancer.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of partial transverse venous sinus obstruction causing a syndrome resembling pseudotumor cerebri. METHOD: Case report. A 61-year-old man developed decreased vision, bilateral papilledema, and a highly increased cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure. brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed a small, extra-axial mass near the torcula, which was dismissed as an incidental meningioma because cerebral angiography showed sinus patency. RESULTS: The patient's vision worsened. biopsy of the enlarging mass disclosed metastatic prostate cancer. After radiation therapy, the mass shrank, magnetic resonance angiography disclosed reopening of the transverse sinuses, and papilledema resolved, but visual fields remained severely compromised. CONCLUSION: Partial blockage of the dural venous sinus by a small mass near the torcula can cause a sufficient increase in intracranial pressure to produce vision-threatening papilledema.
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9/234. occipital lobe meningioma in a patient with multiple chemical sensitivities.

    BACKGROUND: The concurrent diagnosis of meningioma with increased intracranial pressure has not been reported previously in a patient who meets diagnostic criteria for multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS). methods: A patient who had been evaluated in an occupational medicine practice, and by several other physicians for sensitivity to chemical odors was found to have papilledema and a visual field deficit. The patient met the clinical criteria set forth by Cullen in 1987 for MCS. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan was performed. RESULTS: The MRI revealed a large occipital lobe meningioma, which was surgically resected. Removal of the meningioma had little effect on the patient's symptoms. She has been unable to return to her job as a custodian. DISCUSSION: The etiology of MCS has been disputed and is currently unresolved. Those who evaluate patients with MCS are reminded that meningiomas and other intracranial mass lesions can affect olfaction, and that patients with MCS can have treatable intracranial abnormalities.
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10/234. Bilateral optic neuropathy after bone marrow transplantation and cyclosporin A therapy.

    BACKGROUND: Cyclosporin A (CsA) is widely used as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantation. Under this condition optic neuropathy has been found and considered as a possible side effect of cyclosporin A. CASE REPORT: A 52-year-old man presented with bilateral optic disc swelling and visual loss 6 months after bone marrow transplantation. Cyclosporin A was the only medication with a known neurotoxic side effect. After cessation of cyclosporin A and treatment with oral prednisone, vision improved within 2 months. Optic disc swelling ameliorated within 6 months but partial optic atrophy developed. DISCUSSION: Cyclosporin A given after bone marrow transplantation may have caused bilateral optic neuropathy in our patient. Microangiopathy of the optic nerve may be the pathogenetic mechanism.
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