Cases reported "Paraganglioma"

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1/66. Bone metastases from a paraganglioma. A review of five cases.

    Paragangliomas are infrequent, usually benign tumors developed from neuroectoderm cells. The neck is the most common location, although some cases arise within the abdominal cavity, usually in the retroperitoneal space. We report five cases with bone metastases. In three patients, convincing evidence was obtained that the primary was in the retroperitoneal space. Clinical manifestations of metastatic bone disease occurred up to 17 years after the diagnosis of paraganglioma. Useful data were obtained from plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, serum and urine catecholamine assays, and above all meta 123iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. Histologic and immunohistochemical studies of the lesion yielded the definite diagnosis. Surgery and radiation therapy are the two mainstays of therapy. Although rare, metastatic forms of paraganglioma should be borne in mind. This diagnosis should be entertained in patients with bone lesions and recent-onset arterial hypertension, irrespective of whether they report a history of surgery for a tumor, and even if this tumor was removed many years earlier and labeled benign.
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2/66. Visualisation of a paraganglioma by technetium-99m-sestamibi scintigraphy.

    A 68-yr-old woman presented to our observation with multinodular goiter and a contiguous right laterocervical mass. In spite of ultrasound, technetium and iodine scan, CT and fine-needle biopsy, the precise origin of the mass remained uncertain. On additional multi-phase sestamibi scan, the neck region showed an early high uptake rapidly decreasing over time in the laterocervical mass, and a persistent inhomogeneous distribution in the thyroid gland. This behavior suggested that the laterocervical mass could derive from an anatomical structure other than the thyroid. Surgical exploration established the extrathyroid nature of the laterocervical mass and the histological examination confirmed that it was a typical paraganglioma. This finding is in keeping with a recent report of positive sestamibi uptake in a cervical paraganglioma, although our case showed a more rapid kinetic. This tumor should be therefore taken into consideration in the differential interpretation of focal sestamibi uptake.
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3/66. Hereditary paraganglioma.

    head and neck paraganglioma is a rare tumour, especially in its familial form. We report a case of a multifocal head and neck paraganglioma in a young man with a family history of cervical tumours. At the age of 24, exploration of a left cervical swelling disclosed jugulotympanic and carotid body paragangliomas. Surgical removal of both tumours was performed. Two years later, a right carotid body as well as vagal paragangliomas were discovered. Follow-up at age 30 demonstrated relapse of the bilateral cervical paragangliomas, but also aortopulmonary and mesogastric paragangliomas. Cervical paragangliomas were also detected in the patient's sister and daughter, but not in his father. Furthermore, the proband's paternal grandmother and a maternal great-uncle had a history of 'neck scar'. This family history is suggestive of an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with maternal genomic imprinting. Genetic analysis of paraganglioma kindreds showed linkage with two different loci: 11q13.1 and 11q22.3-q23. Further knowledge of the genes involved could provide early diagnosis and accurate genetic counselling in affected families. Thorough familial investigation is consequently mandatory in all head and neck paragangliomas, especially in younger patients with multiple localizations, as surgical removal is safer at an early stage.
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4/66. Familial paragangliomas: the emerging impact of molecular genetics on evaluation and management.

    HYPOTHESIS: Advancements in molecular genetics has direct impact on the evaluation and management of patients and family members with familial paragangliomas (FP). BACKGROUND: Familial paragangliomas. in contrast to sporadic cases, are commonly multiple, bilateral, and present at an earlier age. Familial tumors are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern with genomic imprinting of the paternal allele. Mapping studies have identified regions on chromosome 11q as harboring the genetic defect responsible for paraganglioma formation. methods: A multigenerational family with five affected females with head and neck paragangliomas underwent clinical and genetic evaluation. Genetic mapping was performed with microsatellite markers froin chromosome 11q13 and q23. Nonaffected individuals were screened for carrying the affected haplotype. In addition, by using dna obtained from an amniotic fluid sample. in utero screening of a fetus was performed. RESULTS: The most common complaints were hearing loss and neck masses that usually manifested by age 25. Genetic mapping identified loci 11q13 and q23 as sites likely responsible for tumorogenesis. Three unaffected family members, including a fetus, were identified as carriers of the affected haplotype. The genetic findings were used to design a screening protocol for family members at risk for developing glomus tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic screening of unaffected family members can identify individuals harboring the mutated allele. Identification of family members at risk for developing FP by molecular genetic techniques may lead to early detection of head and neck paragangliomas and may directly impact morbidity from glomus tumors and their treatment.
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5/66. Malignant paraganglioma of frontoethmoidal region.

    Nonchromaffin paragangliomas are unusual tumours arising from widely distributed paraganglionic tissues probably of neural crest origin. In the head and neck region they are usually seen as carotid body or jugulotympanic tumours. Other rarely reported sites in the head and neck region are the orbit, nose and larynx. This report deals with a case of sinonasal paraganglioma which was initially treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Twenty two years later the tumour recurred and showed a rapid growth due to malignant transformation which we believe is late effect of radiotherapy. The clinical features, histopathology and role of radiotherapy in sinonasal paragangliomas together with a review of the medical literature have been discussed.
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6/66. paraganglioma as a systemic syndrome: pitfalls and strategies.

    Tumours of the neuroendocrine system in the head and neck region are mostly paragangliomas of the glomus tympanicum or jugulare, or of the carotid body. The majority of these tumours are benign, and the coexistence of multiple paragangliomas seems to be rare. Pre-operative embolization and surgery are regarded as primary therapy for these tumours. The treatment regimen in any patient depends on age, general health, hearing status and the function of the lower cranial nerves. Several presentations are possible in which paragangliomas occur as systemic disease. 1. Paragangliomas may occur bilaterally, or, in rare cases, in multiple areas. Pre-operative bilateral angiography is of utmost importance. In case of multicentricity, it might be necessary to proceed without, or just with, unilateral surgery for preservation of adjacent structures. In surgery of jugular vein paraganglioma, we usually perform a modified transmastoidal and transcervical approach with preservation of middle-ear structures and the ossicles. As an alternative or supplement to surgery, radiotherapy or definitive embolization may be used in the treatment of paragangliomas. 2. Paragangliomas may occur as multiple endocrine neoplasia (men) syndrome combined with medullary thyroid gland carcinoma, and, facultatively, pheochromocytoma. In these cases, endocrinological examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the adrenal region, the thorax and the neck are required for an adequate therapeutic strategy. As men may be inherited, family history should be evaluated. 3. Paragangliomas can became malignant and metastasize. Thus, cervical lymph node metastases or distant metastases may occur. We recommend the removal of all ipsilateral lymph nodes and their histological examination.
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7/66. Vagal paraganglioma. Report of a case surgically treated and review of the literature.

    The authors report the observation of one case of vagal paraganglioma occurred in a young woman. The tumor manifested itself as a left sub-mandibular tumescence; the very first diagnostic approach was achieved through echography, which showed a mass behind the internal carotid artery and compressing the internal jugular vein. The following examinations, represented by neck CT, NMR, angiography and fine needle aspiration initially directed towards the suspicion of chemodectoma. Only at operation, the anatomical situation of the tumor, which encapsulated the vagus nerve and the subsequent results of the hystological examination revealed the correct diagnosis of vagal paraganglioma.
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8/66. neck mass caused by an intraluminal jugular paraganglioma.

    Paragangliomas can develop in a number of head and neck sites, the most common being the carotid body paragangliomas and glomus jugulare tumours. This is a case of a paraganglioma confined entirely within the lumen of the jugular vein.
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9/66. Schwannoma with angiosarcoma. Report of a case and comparison with other types of nerve tumors with angiosarcoma.

    BACKGROUND: Schwannoma with angiosarcomatous change is a rare tumor, the clinical characteristics of which have not been analyzed. methods: A patient with schwannoma with angiosarcoma arising in the midneck and clinically mimicking a carotid body paraganglioma is described with a literature review of all previously reported cases and a comparison of their clinical features with those of schwannoma with conventional malignant transformation and cases of neurofibroma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) with angiosarcoma. RESULTS: There are four reported cases, including the present case. Schwannoma with angiosarcoma affects older adults, mainly men. Three tumors arose from the vagus nerve in the neck. Three of the four angiosarcomas were epithelioid in type. Treatment in all cases was surgical resection followed by radiation and chemotherapy in one case and by radiation alone in another. One patient died with residual local angiosarcoma 5 months after the diagnosis. The remaining three patients were alive and disease free at 27 months, 43 months, and 90 months, with distant metastasis (after 15 months) reported only in the patient described in this case report. CONCLUSIONS: Schwannoma with angiosarcoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of presumed carotid body paragangliomas. Like angiosarcoma alone and schwannoma with conventional malignant transformation, but unlike cases of neurofibroma and MPNST with angiosarcoma, the patients are older adults, and there is a male prevalence. Schwannoma with angiosarcoma is capable of local spread with a fatal outcome and of distant metastasis, but follow-up strongly suggests that these patients have a better prognosis than patients with neurofibroma or MPNST with angiosarcoma. Recommended treatment is attempted complete surgical resection followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy, if it can be tolerated by the patient.
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10/66. Endovascular therapy in the treatment of head and neck lesions.

    Recent advances in microcatheter technology, refinements in embolic agents and improvements in navigational techniques have allowed for endovascular embolization to become an important adjunct in the treatment of vascular head and neck lesions. We describe several case reports where endovascular embolization was utilized in the treatment of such lesions.
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