Cases reported "Paraganglioma"

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1/87. paraganglioma of the cauda equina region--report of two cases and review of the literature.

    A paraganglioma of cauda equina region is extremely rare and except for secreting tumour, the pre-operative diagnosis of paraganglioma is very difficult. Two cases of non-functional paragangliomas of the cauda equina region are reported, one was attached to the filum terminale and the other to a rootlet looking very much like a vascular neurinoma. Both were successfully removed by surgery. An extensive review of the literature permits one to find 77 other cases. The clinical, radiological, pathological (ultrastructural and immunohistochemical) features and surgical findings of all theses cases are discussed. Surgery remains the treatment of choice. No effect of radiotherapy on recurrence prevention has ever been demonstrated.
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2/87. paraganglioma in the frontal skull base--case report.

    A 56-year-old female presented with a paraganglioma in the left anterior cranial fossa who manifesting as persistent headache. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a solid, enhanced tumor with a cystic component located medially. The tumor was attached to the left frontal base and the sphenoid ridge. angiography demonstrated a hypervascular tumor fed mainly by the left middle meningeal artery at the left sphenoid ridge. The preoperative diagnosis was meningioma of the left frontal base. The tumor was totally resected via a left frontotemporal craniotomy. Histological examination revealed the characteristic cellular arrangement of paraganglioma generally designated as the "Zellbaren pattern" on light microscopy. Only 10 patients with supratentorial paraganglioma have been reported, seven located in the parasellar area. The origin of the present tumor may have been the paraganglionic cells which strayed along the middle meningeal artery at differentiation.
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3/87. Reversible sensorineural hearing impairment induced by a carotid body tumor.

    A case of a 62-year-old Austrian man having a 25-year history of a right-sided carotid body tumor (CBT) is presented. Three months before being transferred to the University of Vienna for tumor resection the patient developed symptoms of tinnitus, progressive ipsilateral hearing loss and dysphagia. Pure-tone audiometry demonstrated a 50 dB right sensorineural hearing loss. A 6 x 6 x 4 cm firm, pulsatile mass was found in the right carotid triangle and extending towards the base of the skull. One week after radical tumor resection all preoperative symptoms disappeared and hearing of the right ear recovered. review of the available literature showed that hearing loss and tinnitus are unusual symptoms of a CBT. Our findings suggest that routine audiometric evaluations in such cases of CBT patients should be obtained in order to determine the real incidence of audiological disorders.
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4/87. paraganglioma as a systemic syndrome: pitfalls and strategies.

    Tumours of the neuroendocrine system in the head and neck region are mostly paragangliomas of the glomus tympanicum or jugulare, or of the carotid body. The majority of these tumours are benign, and the coexistence of multiple paragangliomas seems to be rare. Pre-operative embolization and surgery are regarded as primary therapy for these tumours. The treatment regimen in any patient depends on age, general health, hearing status and the function of the lower cranial nerves. Several presentations are possible in which paragangliomas occur as systemic disease. 1. Paragangliomas may occur bilaterally, or, in rare cases, in multiple areas. Pre-operative bilateral angiography is of utmost importance. In case of multicentricity, it might be necessary to proceed without, or just with, unilateral surgery for preservation of adjacent structures. In surgery of jugular vein paraganglioma, we usually perform a modified transmastoidal and transcervical approach with preservation of middle-ear structures and the ossicles. As an alternative or supplement to surgery, radiotherapy or definitive embolization may be used in the treatment of paragangliomas. 2. Paragangliomas may occur as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndrome combined with medullary thyroid gland carcinoma, and, facultatively, pheochromocytoma. In these cases, endocrinological examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the adrenal region, the thorax and the neck are required for an adequate therapeutic strategy. As MEN may be inherited, family history should be evaluated. 3. Paragangliomas can became malignant and metastasize. Thus, cervical lymph node metastases or distant metastases may occur. We recommend the removal of all ipsilateral lymph nodes and their histological examination.
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5/87. paraganglioma of the cauda equina. Case report with 33-month recurrence free follow-up and review of the literature.

    paraganglioma of the cauda equina is an unusual tumor and do not have the secretory properties of the same tumors arising outside the nervous system. In none of the few cases reported in literature a preoperative diagnosis was possible, and the surgical findings raised questions in the differential diagnosis with ependymomas. A rare case of paraganglioma of the cauda equina studied both pre- and postoperatively by MRI, and treated with subtotal excision combined with radiotherapy is described. Results and recurrence rates of the cases reported in literature are reviewed. Though MRI imaging has proven to be more sensitive than other radiological procedures, we stress the difficulties of preoperative diagnosis of paragangliomas in this site. The correct diagnosis of the paraganglioma of the cauda equina still relies on immunochemistry and electron microscopy. Total excision is often very difficult owing the tendency of these neoplasms to infiltrate cauda's roots. A 33-month recurrence free follow-up of our patient confirms that successful treatment is achieved by subtotal resection combined with radiotherapy.
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6/87. paraganglioma of the external auditory canal: an unusual case.

    Primary paraganglioma of the external auditory canal is a rare otological finding. To date, only three cases have been reported in the world-wide literature. Such a tumour is now described in a 42-year-old female. The clinical and histopathological features of the case are discussed. The role of immunocytochemistry in defining diagnosis, from a large list of differentials, is illustrated. We present the first magnetic resonance images of this rare tumour and highlight the benefit of intra-operative frozen section in limiting surgery to canal excision.
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7/87. Surgical resection of jugulare foramen tumors by juxtacondylar approach without facial nerve transposition.

    PRESENTATION: Jugulare foramen tumors (JFT) remain a difficult challenge especially in the forms extending extradurally and invading the petrous bone. In the standard technique, facial nerve function is placed at risks because of its transposition. We report on 31 extradural (N = 11) or intra-extra dural (N = 20) JFT resected surgically using the juxtacondylar approach alone or in combination with the infratemporal approach and without facial nerve transposition. RESULTS: The juxtacondylar approach permits the opening of the JF on its posteroinferior aspect and thus reduces the extent of petrous bone drilling. In tumors strictly located in the JF (N = 11), no petrous bone drilling is necessary and the facial nerve is never exposed. In tumors extending into the petrous bone (N = 20), the facial nerve was never transposed and moreover was kept in its bony canal in 15 cases. In only 5 cases, was the fallopian canal opened as the tumor was invading its bony wall. Similarly hearing function, when pre-operatively intact was always preserved and a better preservation of the lower cranial nerves could be achieved. Whatever the tumoral extent along the petrosal carotid artery, a radical resection could be realized in 30 cases. CONCLUSION: Therefore, we consider the juxtacondylar approach a useful adjunct to increase the possibilities of resection of JFT; it allows a better preservation of the neurovascular structures, especially the facial nerve which is kept in place and moreover kept in its bony canal when it is not invaded by the tumor.
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8/87. Duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma as a radiological moving defect.

    BACKGROUND: Gangliocytic paraganglioma of the duodenum is a peculiar neuroendocrine tumor, often revealed as an incidental radiographic finding or as a result of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, due to frequent ulceration of the overlying mucosa. Most lesions are pedunculated and submucosal with distinctive histology, consisting of endocrine, ganglion and spindle-shaped schwann cells. methods: A case of a duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma is reported in a 50-year-old woman presenting with episodes of melena. Enteroclysis revealed a pedunculated tumor observed either in the second or third portion of the duodenum. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a pedunculated ulcerated tumor which was subsequently confirmed by computed tomography. The tumor was simply excised through a duodenotomy. RESULTS: The size of the tumor was 4.5 x 3 x 1.5 cm. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of the tumor classified it as a typical duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma with positive cellular reaction for neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin, somatostatin, gastrin and S100. CONCLUSION: Forty-six months after surgery, the patient is well with no evidence of recurrence. The majority of the reported duodenal gangliocytic paragangliomas were of benign nature. However, the fact that in 4 isolated cases there was lymph node involvement indicates that thorough investigation for lymph node metastases is needed, as well as thorough postoperative follow-up.
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9/87. Biologic characteristics of paragangliomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.

    Paragangliomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are extremely rare. This study was conducted to investigate the biologic characteristics of these lesions on different molecular levels and to estimate their biologic behavior. Operative specimens of three patients who underwent surgery for a paraganglioma of the nasal cavity (one case) or paranasal sinuses (two cases) were investigated by routine histology, quantitative dna analysis, and immunohistochemical assessment of proliferation markers (i.e., proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA; Ki67-MIB-1), the expression of cell-surface antigens, which reflect the tumor-stroma interaction (i.e., CD 44 v0.4/5 and 6, CD 54, CD 106), oncogene products (nm-23; p53), and bcl-2 as a marker of apoptosis. Histologically, two tumors were paragangliomas of the adenomatous subtype, one lesion was classified as angiomatous. According to dna analysis, aneuploid cells were detected in all tumors. Two of three paragangliomas were classified as a dna type III pattern, implying a high percentage of aneuploid cells and an aggressive behavior. Immunohistochemically, paragangliomas of the nasal cavity showed increased scores for both proliferation markers tested, indicating a rapid growth pattern. According to the expression of cell-surface markers and oncogene products, these tumors displayed an aggressive behavior and an infiltrating growth pattern. The highest value for the parameters of quantitative dna analysis and highest proliferation scores were found in a tumor of a patient who developed multiple tumor recurrences after radical excision of the lesion with clear margins, and finally died of disease. In conclusion, paragangliomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses examined in this study should be regarded as suspicious concerning their biologic and clinical behavior. Radical excision, and in cases with highly aggressive biology, postoperative radiation therapy are recommended. Tumor biologic examinations can help to recognize high-risk patients for developing recurrences and possibly lesions with a malignant behavior and to enhance our understanding of the biology of these extremely rare tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
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10/87. Sympathetic paraganglioma as an unusual cause of Horner's syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: Paragangliomas are rare tumors arising from paraganglionic tissue of neural crest origin. They are present in any location where autonomic ganglia are found. The most common location in the head and neck is the carotid body, followed by the jugular bulb and vagus nerve. methods: A 30-year-old woman with a slowly growing left neck mass, aniscoria, and left eyelid ptosis was found to have a vascular tumor consistent with a paraganglioma arising near the left carotid bifurcation. After preoperative embolization, the patient underwent resection of the tumor. RESULTS: The tumor was found to be arising from the left sympathetic trunk and did not involve any other surrounding structures. Histopathologic analysis revealed the typical findings of a paraganglioma. CONCLUSIONS: Sympathetic paragangliomas are exceedingly rare tumors in the head and neck and should be considered in the differential diagnosis when clinical and radiographic evidence suggest a paraganglioma. The presentation is typically a slow-growing neck mass with the presence of an ipsilateral Horner's syndrome.
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