Cases reported "Paralysis"

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11/175. The voluntary control of motor imagery. Imagined movements in individuals with feigned motor impairment and conversion disorder.

    The ability to volitionally control motor imagery was investigated by comparing the chronometry of real and imagined movements in a patient (AB) with conversion disorder who presented with paralysis of the left arm and hand and in a patient (MM) with an actual injury to the left arm. Control experiments investigated voluntary control of motor imagery in a group of healthy individuals who feigned a motor impairment with one limb and in one group who were instructed to move carefully and slowly. The visually guided pointing task was used to investigate the speed for accuracy trade-offs that occur as target size is varied for both real and imagined performance. In the healthy individuals, the speed for accuracy trade-off for both real and imagined performance on the motor task conformed to Fitts' law provided both the speed and accuracy of movements was emphasised. In MM, real and imagined performance was also within normal limits despite considerable pain and discomfort. In AB and in subjects feigning a motor impairment, motor task performance with the affected limb was slow and did not conform to Fitts' law. However, although imagined performance with the affected limb was generally slower than with the unaffected limb, it did conform to Fitts' law. These results suggest subjects cannot anticipate the effects of an actual limb injury. Furthermore, while they are able to control the general duration of imagined movements they have little voluntary control over their relative timing.
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ranking = 1
keywords = injury
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12/175. A limited anterior petrosectomy with preoperative embolization of the inferior petrosal sinus for ventral brainstem tumor removal.

    BACKGROUND: The present study describes the use of a limited subtemporal extradural anterior petrosectomy with preoperative embolization of the inferior petrosal sinus for the management of tumors located behind the clivus and ventral to the brainstem. Details of the procedure and its application in five cases are presented. methods: This procedure consists of using the extradural route to approach the upper side of the petrosal pyramid so that it can be drilled medially, and to resect the apex to come out into the posterior fossa. This route gives a petrosectomy just medial to the horizontal segment of the petrous carotid artery in front of the cochlea. It goes around the labyrinthine mass and the internal auditory canal from above to expose the posterior fossa dura between the two petrosal sinuses. The dural opening exposes the ventral aspect of the pons from the trigeminal nerve to the origin of the abducens nerve, ventral to the facial nerve. Preoperative embolization of the inferior petrosal sinus allows its intraoperative section for a wider exposure along the lower clivus. This approach can easily be combined with an intradural approach to provide additional exposure above the trigeminal nerve. patients who underwent this procedure had prepontine cisternal chordoma or epidermoid cyst of the petroclival region. RESULTS: One patient experienced a cranial nerve deficit as a direct result of the surgical procedure (VIth nerve palsy requiring surgery) but no other patient has had permanent neuromuscular compromise. Complications consisted of a wound infection in one case. Tumor removal was total in three cases and partial in two cases. CONCLUSION: Quite easy to master, the anterior petrosectomy with preoperative embolization of the inferior petrosal sinus is a time-conserving approach giving one of the best routes to reach the ventral brainstem while working in front of the cranial nerves and preserving hearing.
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ranking = 1.6035645535333
keywords = trigeminal nerve
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13/175. Severe, traumatic soft-tissue loss in the antecubital fossa and proximal forearm associated with radial and/or median nerve palsy: nerve recovery after coverage with a pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap.

    A total of 6 patients with complex, traumatic wounds of the antecubital fossa and proximal forearm were included in this study. All patients presented with radial and/or median nerve palsies in addition to their soft-tissue defect. Except for 1 patient with a 15-cm defect of the radial nerve, all other traumatized nerves appeared in-continuity at the time of surgery. However, the nerve injury was severe enough to induce wallerian degeneration (i.e., axonotmesis in traumatized nerves in-continuity). Three patients required brachial artery reconstruction with a reverse saphenous vein graft. Wound coverage was accomplished using a pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap, which was covered with a split-thickness skin graft. Successful reconstruction was obtained in all patients. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 6 years. The range of motion at the elbow and forearm was considered excellent in 5 patients and good in the remaining patient who had an intra-articular fracture. Motor recovery of traumatized nerves in-continuity was observed in all but 1 patient who had persistent partial anterior interosseous nerve palsy. The grip strength of the injured hand measured 70% to 85% of the contralateral uninjured hand. median nerve sensory recovery was excellent in all patients. The versatility of the pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap for coverage of these complex wounds with traumatized neurovascular bundles around the elbow is discussed.
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ranking = 17.188291848368
keywords = nerve injury, injury
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14/175. Acute posttraumatic spinal cord herniation. Case report and review of the literature.

    Transdural herniations of the spinal cord are rare, and those occurring acutely after a spinal cord injury (SCI) are particularly unusual. In this report, the authors present the case of acute posttraumatic spinal cord herniation in a patient who sustained severe polytraumatic injuries. The clinical manifestations were acute flaccid paralysis of the right leg and rapidly progressive sensorimotor deficits of the contralateral leg. The herniation was surgically reduced. Postoperatively left leg paralysis was completely resolved. The authors review the pertinent literature, and suggest that, with regard to another underlying pathophysiological mechanism, cases of acute posttraumatic spinal cord herniation should be differentiated from those "posttraumatic" cases in which herniation of the spinal cord occurs years or even decades after the traumatic event. To the best of the authors' knowledge, only one similar case has been previously reported. They conclude that acute posttraumatic spinal cord herniation should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute neurological deterioration after SCI.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = injury
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15/175. Bilateral phrenic nerve palsy as a complication of anterior decompression and fusion for cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report of bilateral phrenic nerve palsy as a complication of anterior decompression and fusion for cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). OBJECTIVES: To present a case of a rare and serious complication of cervical spinal surgery and to investigate its cause. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There have been a number of reports of phrenic nerve palsy after cardiac surgery, but the authors have found no previous description of this complication related to spinal surgery. methods: The authors describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of bilateral phrenic nerve palsy subsequent to the surgery for cervical OPLL. Also, the literature is reviewed concerning surgical approaches for the treatment of OPLL and the occurrence of phrenic nerve palsy subsequent to any form of therapy. RESULTS: Bilateral phrenic nerve palsy occurred after anterior decompression and fusion for cervical OPLL. Bilateral phrenic nerve palsy was diagnosed radiographically: postoperative chest radiograph showed bilateral laxity of the diaphragm. movement of the bilateral diaphragm appeared 3 weeks after surgery. The patient successfully returned to normal daily life after ventilatory support for 3 months, although nocturnal oxygen support was still necessary at the latest follow-up, 3 years after surgery. The possible causes of this complication include bilateral C4 nerve root stretching, iatrogenic injury of the gray matter in the ventral horn, alteration of blood circulation related to spinal edema, or re-impingement on the spinal cord at the cranial part of the decompression site. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral phrenic nerve palsy occurred after anterior decompression and fusion for cervical OPLL. Bilateral phrenic nerve palsy should be kept in mind as a serious complication of spinal surgery. It should be considered when patients unexpectedly fail to wean from the ventilator after surgery.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = injury
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16/175. Selective paralysis of the upper extremities after odontoid fracture: acute central cord syndrome or cruciate paralysis?

    A patient presented with selective paralysis of the arms after having sustained a fall. X-ray of the cervical spine showed a type II odontoid fracture with posterior atlantoaxial dislocation. The diagnosis in the emergency room was cruciate paralysis, which is frequently associated with fractures of axis and/or atlas. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine revealed a lesion consistent with the acute central cord syndrome (CCS) at the C2-C6 level. The patient underwent posterior atlantoaxial arthrodesis to correct instability and was discharged, without much neurological improvement. Cruciate paralysis has been reported to be associated with fractures of axis and/or atlas, and acute CCS has rarely been associated with the fractures. However, this case illustrates that the lesion responsible for selective paralysis of the upper extremities is not as specific as it had been thought to be, and that it is difficult to accurately identify the level of the cervical cord injury by neurological diagnosis and x-rays alone. Supplementary diagnostic modalities, particularly MRI, are required to make a correct diagnosis and develop a therapeutic strategy.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = injury
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17/175. Serratus anterior paralysis as an occupational injury in scaffolders: two case reports.

    BACKGROUND: shoulder complaints in scaffolders are very common and may result in permanent disability. methods: We present two case reports of patients who developed acute shoulder complaints. After lifting weights up to 50 kg both patients suffered an isolated lesion of the long thoracic nerve resulting in serratus anterior paralysis. RESULTS: Physical signs are unilateral winging of the scapula and loss of strength in the arm. A combined effect of pressure and stretching of the nerve resulted in an occupational injury with a different prognosis of reversibility in both patients. CONCLUSION: shoulder pads in the overall and limiting the weight to carry may prevent future injuries.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = injury
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18/175. femoral nerve palsy caused by a self-retaining polyretractor during major pelvic surgery.

    Postoperative femoral neuropathy is not a well-recognized complication in urology. We report 2 cases of femoral nerve palsy due to compression ascribed to the use of the self-retaining retractor. In the first case, the left femoral nerve was injured, and in the second case nerve injury was bilateral and synchronous. The clinical symptoms were a weakness of the quadriceps muscle and sensory anesthesia of the surrounding skin.
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ranking = 17.188291848368
keywords = nerve injury, injury
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19/175. hypoglossal nerve paralysis following tonsillectomy.

    While tonsillectomy is the commonest operation performed by otolaryngologists, paralysis of the hypoglossal nerve following tonsillectomy is not well recognized in the otolaryngology text or literature. We report a case of hypoglossal nerve paralysis following tonsillectomy and discuss the theories on the pathoaetiology as described in the predominantly anaesthetics literature. The likely causes of nerve injury are described and precautions are suggested to help avoid this problem.
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ranking = 17.188291848368
keywords = nerve injury, injury
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20/175. ultrasonography of the accessory nerve: normal and pathologic findings in cadavers and patients with iatrogenic accessory nerve palsy.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine feasibility of ultrasonography in detecting the normal accessory nerve as well as pathologic changes in cases of accessory nerve palsy. methods: Four patients with accessory nerve palsy were investigated by ultrasonography. Three cases of accessory nerve palsy after lymph node biopsy and neck dissection were primarily diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography using a 5- to 12-MHz linear transducer. In addition, we performed ultrasonography in 3 cadaveric specimens to show the feasibility of detecting the accessory nerve. RESULT: Nerve transection (n = 2), scar tissue (n = 1), and atrophy of the trapezius muscle (n = 4) were confirmed by electroneurographic testing and surgical nerve inspection. In 1 case in which a patient had a whiplash injury with accessory nerve palsy, ultrasonography showed atrophy of the trapezius muscle with a normal nerve appearance. CONCLUSIONS: ultrasonography allows visualization of the normal accessory nerve as well as changes after accessory nerve palsy.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = injury
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