Cases reported "Paralysis"

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1/129. Left leg paralysis in a renal transplant.

    The postoperative course of renal transplant patients is often complicated by opportunistic infection. Up to 4% of posttransplant infections are caused by nocardia species. We present an unusual case of a nocardial spinal cord abscess that caused left leg paralysis.
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2/129. An uncommon mechanism of brachial plexus injury. A case report.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of brachial plexus injury occurring on the contralateral side in a patient undergoing surgery for acoustic neuroma through translabrynthine approach. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 51-yr-old woman underwent surgery for acoustic neuroma through translabrynthine approach in the left retroauricular area. She had a short neck with a BMI of 32. Under anesthesia, she was placed in supine position with Sugita pins for head fixation. The head was turned 45 degrees to the right side and the neck was slightly flexed for access to the left retroauricular area, with both arms tucked by the side of the body. Postoperatively, she developed weakness in the right upper extremity comparable with palsy of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. hematoma at the right internal jugular vein cannulation site was ruled out by CAT scan and MRI. The only remarkable finding was considerable swelling of the right sternocleidomastoid and scalene muscle group, with some retropharyngeal edema. An EMG confirmed neuropraxia of the upper trunk of brachial plexus. She made a complete recovery of sensory and motor power in the affected limb over the next three months with conservative treatment and physiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: brachial plexus injury is still seen during anesthesia despite the awareness about its etiology. Malpositioning of the neck during prolonged surgery could lead to compression of scalene muscles and venous drainage impedance. The resultant swelling in the structures surrounding the brachial plexus may result in a severe compression.
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3/129. hypoglossal nerve injury as a complication of anterior surgery to the upper cervical spine.

    Injury to the hypoglossal nerve is a recognised complication after soft tissue surgery in the upper part of the anterior aspect of the neck, e.g. branchial cyst or carotid body tumour excision. However, this complication has been rarely reported following surgery of the upper cervical spine. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman with tuberculosis of C2-3. She underwent corpectomy and fusion from C2 to C5 using iliac crest bone graft, through a left anterior oblique incision. She developed hypoglossal nerve palsy in the immediate postoperative period, with dysphagia and dysarthria. It was thought to be due to traction neurapraxia with possible spontaneous recovery. At 18 months' follow-up, she had a solid fusion and tuberculosis was controlled. The hypoglossal palsy persisted, although with minimal functional disability. The only other reported case of hypoglossal lesion after anterior cervical spine surgery in the literature also failed to recover. It is concluded that hypoglossal nerve palsy following anterior cervical spine surgery is unlikely to recover spontaneously and it should be carefully identified.
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4/129. hypoventilation after high unilateral cervical chordotomy in a patient with preexisting injury of the phrenic nerve.

    Unilateral cervical chordotomy for the relief of intractable pain is a well accepted procedure but is not without hazard. Postoperative respiratory failure is not an uncommon occurrence, but the likelihood increases with a number of factors, particularly preexisting pulmonary abnormalities or previous contralateral cervical chordotomy. Preoperative assessment of the pulmonary function of patients who are about to have cervical chordotomy is emphasized to predict and anticipate potential postoperative respiratory failure.
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5/129. Physical therapy in a patient with bilateral obturator nerve paralysis after surgery. A case report.

    obturator nerve injury can result from surgical procedures. Bilateral obturator nerve injury developed in our patient as a result of edema in the obturator fossa after a debulking operation. In the postoperative period, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback, exercise and a home treatment program were used as the physical therapy approach. The patient became symptom-free after the physiotherapy program.
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6/129. femoral nerve palsy in hip replacement due to pelvic cement extrusion.

    We report a case in which cement protrusion into the pelvis led to a major complication. During reaming and preparation of the anterosuperior acetabulum, a bony defect resulted which made fixation of an uncemented cup impossible, and a cemented polyethylene cup was used instead. After surgery the patient suffered a complete loss of femoral nerve function. Postoperative x-rays and CTs showed that a huge mass of bone cement protruded into the pelvis in close proximity to the iliac vessels and the femoral nerve. This probably led to nerve damage during the cement's polymerisation process due to the heat.
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7/129. A limited anterior petrosectomy with preoperative embolization of the inferior petrosal sinus for ventral brainstem tumor removal.

    BACKGROUND: The present study describes the use of a limited subtemporal extradural anterior petrosectomy with preoperative embolization of the inferior petrosal sinus for the management of tumors located behind the clivus and ventral to the brainstem. Details of the procedure and its application in five cases are presented. methods: This procedure consists of using the extradural route to approach the upper side of the petrosal pyramid so that it can be drilled medially, and to resect the apex to come out into the posterior fossa. This route gives a petrosectomy just medial to the horizontal segment of the petrous carotid artery in front of the cochlea. It goes around the labyrinthine mass and the internal auditory canal from above to expose the posterior fossa dura between the two petrosal sinuses. The dural opening exposes the ventral aspect of the pons from the trigeminal nerve to the origin of the abducens nerve, ventral to the facial nerve. Preoperative embolization of the inferior petrosal sinus allows its intraoperative section for a wider exposure along the lower clivus. This approach can easily be combined with an intradural approach to provide additional exposure above the trigeminal nerve. patients who underwent this procedure had prepontine cisternal chordoma or epidermoid cyst of the petroclival region. RESULTS: One patient experienced a cranial nerve deficit as a direct result of the surgical procedure (VIth nerve palsy requiring surgery) but no other patient has had permanent neuromuscular compromise. Complications consisted of a wound infection in one case. Tumor removal was total in three cases and partial in two cases. CONCLUSION: Quite easy to master, the anterior petrosectomy with preoperative embolization of the inferior petrosal sinus is a time-conserving approach giving one of the best routes to reach the ventral brainstem while working in front of the cranial nerves and preserving hearing.
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8/129. Isolated paralysis of the extensor pollicis longus muscle: a further variation of posterior interosseous nerve palsy.

    A case of isolated extensor pollicis longus paralysis is reported representing a fourth, very localized, variation of posterior interosseous nerve palsy. Extensor indicis proprius transfer resulted in a return to function. As the posterior interosseous nerve supplies this and other muscles available for transfer, and the preoperative assessment of extensor indicis proprius function is difficult, the management of this localized nerve palsy presents a dilemma to the surgeon.
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9/129. anterior spinal artery syndrome following total hip arthroplasty under epidural anaesthesia.

    We present a case of anterior spinal artery syndrome in a 57-year-old man having a total hip arthroplasty under epidural anaesthesia. Epidural insertion and surgery were uneventful. Postoperatively bilateral lower limb motor weakness was attributed to the initial dose of local anaesthetic. There was no change in neurological status 24 hours later. magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated spinal cord infarction. The diagnosis of anterior spinal artery syndrome was made based on the patient's neurological condition and MRI findings.
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10/129. Acute posttraumatic spinal cord herniation. Case report and review of the literature.

    Transdural herniations of the spinal cord are rare, and those occurring acutely after a spinal cord injury (SCI) are particularly unusual. In this report, the authors present the case of acute posttraumatic spinal cord herniation in a patient who sustained severe polytraumatic injuries. The clinical manifestations were acute flaccid paralysis of the right leg and rapidly progressive sensorimotor deficits of the contralateral leg. The herniation was surgically reduced. Postoperatively left leg paralysis was completely resolved. The authors review the pertinent literature, and suggest that, with regard to another underlying pathophysiological mechanism, cases of acute posttraumatic spinal cord herniation should be differentiated from those "posttraumatic" cases in which herniation of the spinal cord occurs years or even decades after the traumatic event. To the best of the authors' knowledge, only one similar case has been previously reported. They conclude that acute posttraumatic spinal cord herniation should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute neurological deterioration after SCI.
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