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1/10. Duodenal complications of gynecological malignancies.

    Isolated para-aortic lymph node metastasis leading to intestinal complications is uncommon and diagnosis may therefore be delayed. In the present report duodenal bleeding, obstruction and perforation due to isolated para-aortic lymph node metastasis from stage I uterine malignancies are described. knowledge of these potential problems may lead to early recognition and planning of treatment.
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keywords = gynecologic
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2/10. Internal hemorrhage caused by a twisted malignant ovarian dysgerminoma: ultrasonographic findings of a rare case and review of the literature.

    PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer presents as an acute abdomen very rarely. The purpose of the study is the description of a right ovarian malignant dysgerminoma presenting as an abdominal emergency. CASE: A 16-year-old white female presented with acute abdominal pain in the right iliac fossa. On physical examination the abdomen was acute and a mass in the right lower abdomen was palpated. The patient was sexually active and bimanual gynecological examination revealed the presence of a large lobulated solid tumor in the position of the right adnexa. Ultrasound examination showed the presence of a large, multilobulated, heterogeneous, predominantly solid pelvic mass. color flow imaging showed intratumoral flow signals. The uterus and the left ovary had normal size and echo-texture. Fluid was found in the cul-de-sac and in Morisson's space. An immediate exploratory laparotomy exposed the presence of a twisted right ovarian mass and intraperitoneal hemorrhage. A superficial tumoral vessel actively bleeding was seen. Peritoneal fluid was obtained for cytology. The intra-abdominal hemorrhage ceased when the ovarian pedicle was clamped. The patient underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy and biopsy of the omentum. Pathologic analysis revealed a malignant dysgerminoma of the right ovary, expanding to the mesosalpinx. Cytology was positive for malignancy. Postoperative CT scan of the upper and lower abdomen was negative. The patient was assigned to FIGO Stage IIC and referred for platinum-based chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Ovarian malignant dysgerminoma may present as an acute abdomen because of torsion, passive blood congestion, rupture of superficial tumoral vessels and subsequent intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Ovarian dysgerminoma should be part of the differential diagnosis in a young woman with acute surgical abdomen and a solid heterogeneous pelvic mass detected by ultrasonographic scan.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = gynecologic
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3/10. Acute abdomen in a case with noncommunicating rudimentary horn and unicornuate uterus.

    Unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn is the rarest congenital anatomic anomaly of the female genital system, causing many obstetrical and gynecologic complications. The frequency of this pathology is approximately 1/100 000. A rudimentary horn usually develops following insufficient development of mullerian ducts. These patients present with dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and chronic pelvic pain because of endometriosis and rarely with acute abdominal symptoms following distention and torsion of the noncommunicating rudimentary horn. The case of a patient referred for acute abdomen after distention of a noncommunicating rudimentary horn is presented herein.
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keywords = gynecologic
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4/10. Computed tomography features of spontaneously perforated pyometra: a case report.

    Spontaneous perforation of pyometra is an extremely rare emergent gynecologic disease. We report a 73-year-old woman with a spontaneously perforated pyometra presenting with acute abdomen in the emergency department. A dedicated computed tomography examination of the abdominal and pelvic regions revealed the diagnosis. The patient recovered well after surgical intervention and antibiotic treatment.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = gynecologic
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5/10. pneumoperitoneum and an acute abdominal condition caused by spontaneous perforation of a pyometra in an elderly woman: a case report.

    pyometra, a collection of purulent material in the uterus, is an uncommon gynecologic entity. Spontaneous perforation of the uterus is an infrequent complication of pyometra, most often the result of malignant conditions in the uterus. We report the case of an elderly woman who had an acute abdominal condition and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured pyometra resulting from a degenerative and infected leiomyoma. Although uterine disease is a rare cause of an acute abdominal condition and pneumoperitoneum in the elderly, a perforated pyometra must be considered in the differential diagnosis.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = gynecologic
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6/10. An unusual cause of right lower quadrant pain in a prepubertal child.

    The clinical course of a five-year-old girl with right lower abdominal pain is presented. The differential diagnosis of right lower quadrant abdominal pain in a prepubertal child and a discussion of this child's diagnosis, ovarian torsion, are provided. The need always to consider gynecologic disease in any female patient presenting with a history of colicky lower abdominal pain or an acute abdomen is emphasized.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = gynecologic
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7/10. hematometra presenting as acute appendicitis: a case report.

    A case of intrauterine blood passing into the abdominal cavity and resulting in a clinical picture similar to acute appendicitis is presented. To our knowledge, hematometra presenting in this manner has not been reported in the medical literature. Some disease processes which more commonly mimic acute appendicitis include nonspecific mesenteric adenitis, gynecologic disorders, diverticulitis, and urinary tract infection. Unusual diseases presenting in this manner include splenic torsion, infarcted omentum, ileocecal tuberculosis, and duodenal hematoma.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = gynecologic
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8/10. Factitious illness in gynecology.

    Factitious or self-induced illness has rarely been mentioned in gynecologic literature. Described herein are 4 nonpregnant women, 3 of whom had vaginal bleeding of unknown origin and 1 who had recurrent fevers and an acute abdomen. In gynecologic practice, factitious illness should be suspected whenever a patient presents with a protracted illness that has eluded diagnosis. Furthermore, the index of suspicion for factitious illness should be high whenever a patient has an abnormal psychiatric history or has worked in a paramedical field.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = gynecologic
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9/10. hemoperitoneum in a postmenopausal woman.

    As the number of postmenopausal women increases, physicians will have more opportunities to treat elderly women with gynecological complications. This case report describes a 76-year-old, obese, multiparous woman, known to have gallstones who presented with acute abdomen complaints and was admitted for observation. Treatment was delayed until significant blood loss was recognized. At laparotomy, a ruptured ovarian granulosa cell tumor was found.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = gynecologic
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10/10. Late complication of laparoscopic salpingoophorectomy: retained foreign body presenting as an acute abdomen.

    BACKGROUND: laparoscopy is widely used as a tool in many clinical situations allowing for diagnosis and/or surgical management in a minimally invasive fashion. Most laparoscopic cases are ambulatory and allow patients to recover quickly. Nonetheless, attention to surgical technique is paramount to avoid both short and long term complications. CASE: A 32-year-old woman had a laparoscopy and a reported left salpingoophorectomy for benign disease of the ovary in September, 1994. Shortly thereafter, in January, 1995, she was diagnosed with an intrauterine pregnancy and delivered in October of 1995 by spontaneous vaginal delivery. The pregnancy and delivery were both uncomplicated. The patient presented four weeks postpartum with clinical suspicion of appendicitis. However, at the time of laparotomy, the patient was found to have a retained foreign body from her prior laparoscopy in the right lower quadrant with a pelvic abscess and evidence of prior right salpingoophorectomy. The appendix appeared grossly normal. CONCLUSION: laparoscopy is a safe, effective modality for various surgical and gynecologic conditions. Although laparoscopy is usually done on an outpatient basis, complications can manifest several weeks or months later. This case illustrates and reminds us of the importance of adherence to surgical laparoscopic principles. These include direct visualization when removing equipment and a complete count of surgical instrumentation to confirm the integrity of such at the end of each procedure.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = gynecologic
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