Cases reported "Paraneoplastic Syndromes"

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1/53. Antiamphiphysin antibodies are associated with various paraneoplastic neurological syndromes and tumors.

    BACKGROUND: Antiamphiphysin antibodies react with a 128-kd protein found in synaptic vesicles.They were first described in patients with paraneoplastic stiff-man syndrome and breast cancer, but studies suggest that they can also occur in patients with other tumors and neurological disorders. OBJECTIVE: To determine if antiamphiphysin antibodies are associated with various paraneoplastic neurological syndromes and tumors. patients AND methods: Of 2800 serum samples tested by routine immunohistochemical procedures on sections of paraformaldehyde-fixed rat brain for the detection of autoantibodies associated with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, 5 were selected because of labeling suggestive of antiamphiphysin antibodies and subsequently confirmed by the results of Western blot analysis using recombinant amphiphysin protein. Controls consisted of 40 patients with various nonparaneoplastic neurological diseases; 101 patients with cancer but without paraneoplastic neurological syndrome; 9 patients with small cell lung cancer, anti-Hu antibodies, and paraneoplastic neurological syndrome; 3 patients with M2-type antimitochondrial antibodies but no neurological disorder; and 30 normal subjects. RESULTS: Of the 5 patients with antiamphiphysin antibodies, patient 1 had sensory neuronopathy, encephalomyelitis, and breast cancer; patient 2 had limbic encephalitis, and small cell lung cancer was detected in the mediastinum after 24 months of follow-up; patient 3 had encephalomyelitis and ovarian carcinoma; and patients 4 and 5 had lambert-eaton myasthenic syndrome and small cell lung cancer (patient 4 subsequently developed cerebellar degeneration). None of the 5 had stiffness. Two patients (Nos. 2 and 4) had antimitochondrial antibodies. The two patients (Nos. 4 and 5) with lambert-eaton myasthenic syndrome had antibodies directed against the voltage-gated calcium channel, and patient 2 subsequently developed anti-Hu antibodies. In the controls, antiamphiphysin antibodies were detected by Western blot analysis in 3 of 8 patients with anti-Hu antibodies, but in none of the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that antiamphiphysin antibodies are not specific for one type of tumor or one neurological syndrome and can be associated with other neural and nonneural antibodies. The simultaneous association of several antibodies in some patients suggests multimodal autoantibody production.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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2/53. Neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations of a paraneoplastic syndrome and testicular carcinoma.

    The authors report two patients with testicular cancer who exhibited supranuclear gaze disorders as a manifestation of a paraneoplastic brainstem encephalomyelitis. In the first patient, neuro-ophthalmic dysfunction was accompanied by a prominent limbic encephalitis whereas in the second patient, an unusual, mixed pendular and jerk nystagmus was manifested. neuroimaging revealed an enhancing hypothalamic mass in the first patient and was negative in the second. blood from both patients contained an antibody previously reported in a patient with limbic encephalitis and testicular cancer.
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ranking = 2
keywords = encephalitis
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3/53. A case of the subacute brainstem encephalitis.

    A case of brainstem encephalitis of undetermined etiology is reported in 66-year-old woman who had a sudden onset of illness with left abducens palsy, nystagmus and ataxia. The symptoms progressed to complete paralysis of eye movements, dysphagia and left hemiparesis with generalized hyperreflexia. Examination of CSF, CT scan and MRI of the brain were normal. The patient died 4 months after onset of disease. Neuropathologic study disclosed in the brainstem numerous perivascular and nodular inflammatory cell infiltrations composed predominantly of lymphocytes T and B. Most intensive inflammation concerned midbrain and pontine tegmentum and to a lesser degree medulla oblongata, pontine nuclei and cerebellar nuclei. basal ganglia, cerebral and cerebellar cortex were unaffected. Neuropathological finding was reminiscent of brainstem encephalitides related to viral infection or to paraneoplastic syndrome. However, HSV-1, EBV, and CMV antigens were not detected by immunohistochemistry, as well as evidences of malignancy were not present in this case.
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ranking = 5
keywords = encephalitis
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4/53. Temporally-specific retrograde amnesia in two cases of discrete bilateral hippocampal pathology.

    The role of the hippocampus in retrograde amnesia remains controversial and poorly understood. Two cases are reported of discrete bilateral hippocampal damage, one of which was a rare case of limbic encephalitis secondary to the human herpes virus 6. Detailed memory testing showed marked anterograde memory impairment, but only mild, temporally-limited retrograde amnesia that covered a period of several years in both autobiographical and factual knowledge domains. The absence of extensive retrograde amnesia in these two cases points to a time-limited role for the hippocampus in the retrieval of retrograde memories, and suggests that entorhinal, perirhinal, parahippocampal, or neocortical areas of the temporal lobe may be more critical than the hippocampus proper for long-term retrograde memory functioning. Our findings offer general support to theories of memory consolidation that propose a gradual transfer of memory from hippocampal to neocortical dependency.
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ranking = 1.0004446520202
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
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5/53. small cell lung carcinoma associated with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis.

    limbic encephalitis is an unusual presentation of paraneoplastic syndrome. We report a case of small cell lung carcinoma associated with limbic encephalitis. A 67-year-old man presented with convulsions, memory impairment, and neuropsychiatric disturbances as initial symptoms. Subsequently, small cell lung carcinoma was diagnosed by bronchoscopic biopsy. The cerebrospinal fluid studies, electroencephalography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings had distinctive features compatible with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. The neuropsychiatric symptoms improved significantly after six cycles of systemic chemotherapy and adjuvant radiotherapy, resulting in partial remission of the tumor. A follow-up computed tomography scan of the head showed no evidence of intracranial metastasis 7 months after the diagnosis of cancer. limbic encephalitis may be an initial manifestation of lung cancer. Greater awareness for diagnosis and early treatment of the primary tumor offers the best chance for improvement in patients with lung cancer presenting with limbic encephalitis.
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ranking = 9
keywords = encephalitis
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6/53. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with small cell carcinoma of the prostate.

    A 76-year-old man with primary small cell carcinoma of the prostate died after a subacute illness marked by memory loss and truncal ataxia Post-mortem examination of the central nervous system was consistent with limbic encephalitis and cerebellar degeneration. Although limbic encephalitis is a known complication of small cell carcinoma of the lung, this seems to be the first reported case of limbic encephalitis associated with small cell carcinoma of the prostate. Implications with respect to diagnosis and therapy are discussed.
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ranking = 7
keywords = encephalitis
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7/53. Immunofluorescent analysis of antibodies against neurons in the case of paraneoplastic syndrome.

    The authors report clinical and neuropathological findings especially immunofluorescent detection of antineuronal antibodies in the case of paraneoplastic syndrome in course of the small-cell lung carcinoma. The clinical symptoms, observed in 48-year-old woman, covered bilateral pyramidal syndrome, cerebellar syndrome, myasthenic syndrome and impairment of the cranial nerves. Neuropathological investigation revealed paraneoplastic encephalopathy in the form of encephalitis. Immunofluorescent analysis showed brightly fluorescent neurons standing out against a dull background.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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8/53. Multiple paraneoplastic diseases associated with thymoma.

    Here we report a patient with a lymphoepithelial thymoma who developed in chronological sequence limbic encephalitis, neuromyotonia and myasthenia gravis. The patient presented with limbic encephalitis associated with an invasive thymoma and improved after surgery and cytotoxic therapy. Two months after thymectomy, neuromyotonia associated with hyperhidrosis and mild motor neuropathy occurred and the patient was given plasma-exchange and prednisone therapy. Five months later he developed mild generalised myasthenia gravis. Anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies, previously repeatedly negative, were found positive at the onset of clinical signs of myasthenia gravis.
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ranking = 2
keywords = encephalitis
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9/53. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system as a first presentation in Hodgkin's disease: a case report and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Granulomatous angiitis of the central nervous system is a rare cause of neurological deterioration. It is often diagnosed posthumously, and a high index of suspicion is necessary to make the correct diagnosis on a timely basis. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 27-year-old woman presented to the emergency room with complaints of worsening headache, nausea, and vomiting for 10 days, which were preceded by swelling of her tongue. At the examination, she had mild ocular tenderness, but no cranial nerve abnormalities. Radiographic examination revealed a right temporal lobe area with edema, and mild contrast enhancement was noted on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. A similar but smaller region was present in the left frontal lobe. INTERVENTION: Stereotactic biopsy of the left temporal lobe revealed granulomatous angiitis. Further workup revealed Hodgkin's disease in the mediastinum. dexamethasone as well as chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease was initiated. The patient's symptoms resolved, and she returned to work with her disease in remission. CONCLUSION: Previous reports of central nervous system angiitis have shown an association with sjogren's syndrome, herpes zoster infection, human immunodeficiency virus, and Hodgkin's disease. A review of the literature revealed a total of 12 patients with central nervous system angiitis and Hodgkin's disease. As a group, these patients had very poor outcomes. However, of six patients who presented with central nervous system angiitis and concurrent Hodgkin's disease and who underwent aggressive treatment for both conditions, three had a full recovery, two had a partial recovery, and one died.
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ranking = 0.00044465202021457
keywords = herpes
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10/53. Chronic multiple paraneoplastic syndromes.

    A patient presented with symptoms of limbic and brainstem encephalitis, motor and sensory neuronopathy, cerebellar dysfunction, and highly positive anti-Hu antibodies. He also harbored P/Q-type calcium channel antibodies and manifested the lambert-eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). Small-cell lung cancer was found, and he received both antineoplastic therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). Remission of the malignancy was achieved. Although the anti-Hu-related manifestations improved after therapy, LEMS has persisted, leading to IVIg dependency.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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