Cases reported "Paraplegia"

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1/22. Primary hydatid disease of the spine: an unusual cause of progressive paraplegia. Case report and review of the literature.

    Although rare, spinal hydatid disease is a manifestation of hydatid infestation. The authors present the report of a patient who presented with primary spinal hydatid disease. This disease is often misdiagnosed as tuberculous spondylitis, and thus patients may subsequently receive inappropriate treatment. The patient in this case presented, with an increasing weakness in the lower limbs, to a different clinic from an area in india where hydatid infections are endemic. The infection was misdiagnosed as tuberculous spondolytis based on evaluation of plain x-ray films, and the patient underwent antituberculous chemotherapy and a posterior surgical decompressive procedure. The patient presented to the authors' clinic with increasing paraparesis 1.5 years later. Radiographs and a magnetic resonance image of the spine were obtained, which strongly suggested hydatid disease. Examination of serum levels confirmed the diagnosis. The patient underwent a decompressive procedure of the spine in which stabilization was performed. Postoperatively her paraparesis resolved, and good control over the disease was achieved by chemotherapy. The authors conclude that primary spinal hydatid disease of the spine, although a rare manifestation, should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with infectious and destructive lesions of the spine in regions in which the disease is endemic. Advanced imaging studies should be performed to diagnose the disease. Early decompressive surgery with stabilization of the spine, in addition to adjuvant chemotherapy, is the treatment of choice for these patients.
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2/22. anesthesia for cesarean section in a patient with paraplegia resulting from tumour metastases to spinal cord.

    PURPOSE: Spinal cord injured patients present multiple unique challenges to the anesthesiologist. These include choice of muscle relaxant and management of autonomic hyperreflexia. We report the anesthetic management for Cesarean delivery in a patient who was paraplegic due to spinal canal metastases. Preeclampsia and fever complicated this case. CLINICAL FEATURES: The patient presented at 29 wk gestation with progressive paraplegia at the T10 level due to metastatic osteosarcoma. She had a decompressive laminectomy without improvement in her paralysis. She subsequently developed preeclampsia at 31 wk gestation, and underwent Cesarean delivery for breech presentation under general anesthesia. Anatomical concerns left us unsure of the efficacy or safety of neuraxial anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: Preeclampsia and autonomic hyperreflexia are generally indications for regional anesthesia for cesarean section. Tumour in her spinal canal and laboratory abnormalities including thrombocytopenia and a potential urosepsis dissuaded us from this option. Additionally, rapid sequence induction and intubation were not preferred due to paraplegia, leading us to secure the airway fibreoptically.
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3/22. Acute paraplegia in a patient with spinal tophi: a case report.

    A 28-year-old man with a 5-year history of gouty arthritis suffered from an acute episode of lower back pain. He visited a rehabilitative clinic and received physical therapy following his examination. Weakness and numbness of both lower legs developed rapidly after physical therapy. He was sent to our hospital with complete paralysis of both lower limbs and complete sensory loss below the umbilicus 3 hours after the physical therapy. No peripheral tophi were found. myelography showed an extrinsic compression of the dura sac at T10. Emergency decompressive laminectomy of T9 to T11 was performed. During the surgery, caseous material was found deposited in the ligamentum flavum and the left T9 to T10 facet joint, with indentation of the dura sac. The pathologic diagnosis was spinal tophi. After surgery, the patient's neurologic function recovered rapidly. It was suspected that inappropriate physical therapy might have aggravated acute inflammation of spinal gout and resulted in a rapid deterioration of neurologic function. Though gout is a chronic medical disease, an acute attack of spinal gout may be disastrous and requires emergency neurosurgical intervention.
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4/22. Primary amyloidoma of the thoracic spine presenting with acute paraplegia.

    BACKGROUND: Primary solitary amyloidoma of the spine is a rare disease characterized by localized deposition of amyloid. To the best of our knowledge, there have been only 14 cases previously reported in the literature. patients with focal spinal amyloidoma usually have relatively long symptomatic periods preoperatively, ranging from 3 weeks to 6 years (mean: 12 months). Only two reported patients had acute paraplegia. We add a third case of a thoracic spine amyloidoma presenting with acute paraplegia. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 65-year-old man presented with a three-day history of progressive paraplegia and urinary retention. He was found to have severe cord compression at T2 on magnetic resonance imaging. He underwent emergent decompressive laminectomy with instrumentation for spinal stabilization. Histopathology revealed abundant amyloid deposits. A systemic work-up was negative for amyloidosis. The patient showed marked neurological improvement with residual mild spastic gait after 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Primary spinal amyloidoma with acute paraplegia is rare. One-stage surgery combining prompt decompression and stabilization of the spinal column is mandatory in cases of spinal amyloidoma with acute myelopathy, because primary solitary amyloidoma carries a good prognosis.
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5/22. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess in a neonate. With a review of the literature.

    Spinal epidural abscess is uncommon in neonates and infants, and is usually related to previous lumbar puncture or epidural anaesthesia. diagnosis is often delayed because of the non-specific presentation. We present a 7-week-old girl who developed paraplegia 3 weeks after transient fever and a self-limiting skin rash. MR imaging revealed an epidural contrast-enhancing lesion compressing the spinal cord. At operation, an organised granulated abscess was identified with staphylococcus aureus the causative organism. laminectomy and removal of the organised abscess and systemic intravenous antibiotics resulted in complete neurological recovery. The patient did not develop late spinal deformity following the decompressive laminectomy. The rapid onset of paraplegia can often be missed in such a young child but should be promptly investigated, as surgical treatment of cord compression carries an excellent prognosis for neurological recovery. We review the literature on the initial presentation, usual investigations, causative organisms and surgical management of paediatric spinal epidural abscesses.
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6/22. New-onset neurologic deficits after general anesthesia for MRI.

    Two patients with spine disease were unable to tolerate supine placement for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) because of severe back pain. General anesthesia was administered to enable the patients to undergo MRI. Both patients awakened from anesthesia with new-onset paraplegia and underwent emergency decompressive laminectomy. Acute paraplegia after anesthesia occurs infrequently and is most commonly associated with mechanical injury, vascular compromise, or anesthetic technique. The physical limitations of the MRI environment make it difficult to position some patients in a manner that accommodates their pathophysiology and may place certain patients at risk of neurologic compromise. For this subset of patients, the necessity of MRI with general anesthesia should be reassessed and alternative imaging methods considered.
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7/22. Acute paraplegia caused by a spontaneous extradural heamatoma of the conus medullaris area.

    Four patients with a typical clinical picture of spinal extradural heamatoma of the conus area are presented. Initial symptoms were acute low back pains. The development of symmetrical paraparesis took place in a matter of hours, and spread to total paraplegia. The sensory level was as high as the groins and bladder and rectum paralysis developed early. All patients were over 63, mean age 67 years. Two patients had coagulation defects, one was on anticoagulants, and the other had a severe thrombocytosis. Two patients had used salicylates for rheumatic pains; in one of those patients there was a hemangioma on PAD . In 2 patients, the neuroradiological diagnosis was confirmed with rhizography (Figs. 1 and 2); in the third patient the rhizography was misleading but in her and in a fourth patient the oxygen-myelography was diagnostic, showing an extradural compression in the conus area. Haematomas were removed in all patients through an extensive decompressive laminectomy within 24 hours from the onset of the symptoms. Recovery was good in 2 cases, and fair in one patient who had a poor recovery of the bladder function. In on patient, both paraplegia and bladder paralysis were permanent after 3 years. The differential diagnosis by myelography between the cauda equina syndrome caused by typical disc compression from the one side and from vascular medullary syndromes and myelitis from the other side should be clear. For good functional recovery, early myelography and operative decompression are imperative.
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8/22. Unifocal amyloidosis: a rare cause of spinal cord compression.

    A 75-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of progressive paraparesis due to an extradural mass causing cord compression at the T7 level of the thoracic spine. He underwent decompressive surgery, and later vertebrectomy and cage fixation. Histologically, the lesion was a localized mass of amyloid associated with a clonal plasma cell infiltrate. Localized 'amyloidomas' of the spine are rare, evolve slowly and often have a good prognosis following surgery.
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9/22. Nontraumatic acute complete paraplegia resulting from cervical disc herniation: a case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report of nontraumatic acute complete paraplegia resulting from cervical disc herniation. OBJECTIVES: To describe a rare case of nontraumatic paraplegia resulting from enlargement of a herniated disc in the cervical spine and to outline appropriate management of a patient with severe spinal cord compression secondary to disc herniation with developmental spinal canal stenosis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Acute progression of myelopathy into complete paraplegia resulting from disc herniation is rare. There are only four reported cases of nontraumatic acute myelopathy secondary to cervical disc herniation. No other report has described magnetic resonance imaging findings noted before and after the onset of acute myelopathy. methods: A cervical disc herniation at C6-C7 is reported in a 29-year-old man who had nontraumatic acute complete paraplegia. Neurologic and magnetic resonance imaging findings are evaluated and discussed.RESULTS: Disc herniation at C6-C7 enlarged nontraumatically, resulting in complete paraplegia. Emergent anterior decompression followed by secondary posterior multilevel decompression was performed. magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed localized high signal intensity change in the spinal cord. No neurologic recovery was achieved 3 years post-surgery. CONCLUSION: We emphasize that there is a possibility of acute, irreversible progression of paralysis secondary to nontraumatic enlargement of cervical disc herniation with canal stenosis. In these cases, immediate early decompressive surgery is crucial to the prevention of severe myelopathy.
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keywords = decompressive
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10/22. Spinal epidural lipomatosis with thoracic osteoporotic compression fracture causing paraplegia.

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) frequently occurs as a result of long-term steroid administration for various disorders, and patients often present with osteoporosis. Acute paraplegia in patients with extensive thoracic SEL is rare. We report a case of acute paraplegia caused by osteoporotic compression fracture with extensive thoracic SEL in a 44-year-old man with rheumatoid arthritis who had received steroid therapy for 4 years. He presented initially with abdominal distension and weakness of lower limbs, and a sudden onset of paraplegia with complete motor and sensory loss below the T6 level ensued. Plain radiographs showed an osteoporotic compression fracture of the T6 vertebra. magnetic resonance imaging showed osteoporotic compression fractures of the T5 and T6 vertebrae and SEL from T2 to T10 vertebrae. Decompressive laminectomy with epidural fat debulking was performed, and the pathology was confirmed as epidural lipomatosis. His neurological condition showed no improvement below the T6 level 3 months after surgery. Osteoporotic compression fracture is a risk factor for acute paraplegia in patients with thoracic SEL and decompressive surgery should be performed without delay.
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