Cases reported "Paraplegia"

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11/183. Reversal of twice-delayed neurologic deficits with cerebrospinal fluid drainage after thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair: a case report and plea for a national database collection.

    Delayed neurologic deficits are an uncommon yet devastating complication of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The mechanisms involved in the development of delayed spinal cord ischemia remain ill defined. We report a case of complete reversal of delayed neurologic deficits with postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage. After a thoracoabdominal aneurysm extent I repair, the patient experienced delayed paraplegia at 6 hours and again at 34 hours after the operation, with elevated CSF pressure (>10 mm Hg) on both occasions. Prompt CSF decompression completely reversed the neurologic deficits within hours after onset. The findings in this case further support the role of CSF drainage in spinal cord protection for patients who undergo thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair and make a plea for a national database collection.
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12/183. paraplegia after epidural anesthesia in a patient with peripheral vascular disease: case report and review of the literature with a description of an original technique for hematoma evacuation.

    Epidural hematoma after epidural anesthesia is a rare and uncommon complication in patients with peripheral vascular disease who require perioperative anticoagulation therapy. A low index of suspicion makes its diagnosis difficult and often delayed. Treatment usually involves extensive laminectomy, increasing the chances for patient complications. In this article, the authors report a case of epidural hematoma with secondary paraplegia after epidural anesthesia. Also described is an original technique for evacuating the epidural space.
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13/183. naloxone infusion and drainage of cerebrospinal fluid as adjuncts to postoperative care after repair of thoracoabdominal aneurysms.

    The mechanisms that produce paraplegia in patients after TAA repair are complex and involve alterations in regional blood flow to the spinal cord, CSF dynamics, and reperfusion. Although neither the minimal level of blood flow nor the maximal spinal cord pressure that can be tolerated by the spinal cord is known, adjuncts such as CSF drainage and naloxone infusions may allow longer durations of aortic cross-clamping before irreversible ischemia occurs. Because paraplegia is multifactorial and none of the recommended adjuncts alone provides complete protection of the spinal cord, a combination of treatments may be necessary to reduce the prevalence of neurological complications after thoracoabdominal aortic reconstruction. critical care nurses thus must be acquainted with the advanced monitoring techniques and the pathophysiology behind these new treatment modalities. Advanced assessment skills are also essential to recognize the potential neurological complications that may occur in these patients. Care of patients with TAA is a challenge. critical care nurses must use multidimensional skills in the areas of hemodynamic monitoring, physical assessment, and psychological counseling to effectively manage postoperative care of these patients.
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14/183. Iatrogenic paraplegia caused by surgicel used for hemostasis during a thoracotomy: report of a case.

    A 46-year-old Japanese woman underwent a right lower lobectomy through a posterolateral incision made in the fifth intercostal space under general and epidural anesthesia on January 23, 1995. During the procedure, oxidized regenerated cellulose (Surgicel) was used to prevent postoperative rebleeding from the dorsal branch of the fifth intercostal artery. The following day it became evident that complete paraplegia had developed below the Th5 level, the cause of which was revealed by an emergency laminectomy, performed within 20 h after the thoracotomy, to be the Surgical treatment. By 50 days after the operation the patient had begun to show improvement, and was able to move her lower extremities against gravity. Her condition is continuing to improve.
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15/183. Intramedullary sarcoidosis presenting as incomplete paraplegia: case report and literature review.

    sarcoidosis is a chronic, multisystem noncaseating granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. sarcoidosis typically presents clinically in individuals between the ages of 20 and 40 years. Although sarcoidosis most commonly affects the respiratory system, nearly any organ system can be involved. Spinal cord involvement by sarcoidosis is a rare event, occurring in less than 1% of patients with systemic disease. The case presented is that of a 29-year-old black male with benign past medical history who presented with a 6-week history of progressive incomplete paraplegia and bowel dysfunction. magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intramedullary mass at the T-4-T-5 levels. The patient underwent thoracic laminectomy and debulking of the mass. The pathology was consistent with granulomatous disease. Postoperatively, the patient was placed on prednisone. He subsequently received comprehensive inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation and at present is bowel and bladder continent and ambulating at community levels with a rolling walker. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis; potential treatment options, including debulking and long-term steroid use; and prognosis will be discussed.
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16/183. The syndrome of frontonasal dysplasia, spastic paraplegia, mental retardation and blindness: a case report with CT scan findings and review of literature.

    Frontonasal dysplasia is defined as hypertelorism, telecanthus and broad bridge of the nose with absent or bifid tip of the nose. The clinical, the CT scan and the operative findings of a case of frontonasal dysplasia with spastic paraplegia, mental retardation, blindness, and cleft lip and cleft palate are discussed. The contemporary literatures on this rare congenital anomaly are also reviewed.
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17/183. A rare case of osteoporotic spine fracture associated with epidural lipomatosis causing paraplegia following long-term cortisone therapy.

    Cushing's syndrome is frequently associated with osteoporosis. Therefore, the incidence of osteoporotic spine fractures is significant. They are a rare cause of paraplegic syndromes. Additionally, epidural lipomatosis may occur in those patients. The combination of both fracture and lipomatosis may cause neurological deficit. A case of a young patient suffering from drug-induced Cushing's syndrome is reported. She developed progressive paraplegia. Radiographs demonstrated kyphosis of the thoracic spine from T7 to T9 and pathologic fractures. Urgent operation was planned to stabilize and decompress the spinal cord in the area of the kyphosis. Fortunately, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was conducted first. It confirmed pathologic fractures of T7-9 but also showed massive epidural fat extending from the level of T1 to T9. As suspected, laminectomy alone in the area of the fracture proved to be insufficient, as shown by myelography during operation. For treatment of paraplegia in this case of symptomatic epidural lipomatosis, an expanded laminectomy was necessary to remove all the epidural fat. Having undergone this procedure, the patient is now recovering from paraplegia. Our experience suggests that care should be taken before operative treatment of patients with pathological fractures in combination with Cushing's syndrome. In addition to vertebral fractures, epidural lipomatosis has to be taken into consideration. Those patients with neurological deficits have to be treated by an extensive laminectomy.
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18/183. Complete paraplegia as a result of regional anesthesia.

    Complications after spinal or epidural anesthesia are rare. We report 2 cases of postoperative, complete paraplegia after regional anesthesia in orthopaedic patients not on anticoagulants. The paralysis was likely the result of spinal cord compression secondary to an epidural hematoma in 1 case and subdural hematoma in 1 case. A review of the literature regarding complications of regional anesthesia is presented. Regional anesthesia should be administered with caution and in selected patients.
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19/183. lower extremity paraparesis or paraplegia subsequent to endovascular management of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    lower extremity paraplegia or paraparesis is an extremely rare event after operative repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAS). We report two such cases that occurred after endovascular repair or attempted endovascular repair of routine AAAS. To our knowledge, these are the first two cases reported specifically in the literature. These cases may have significant implications with regard to the endovascular management of AAAS, because atheroembolization to the spinal cord appears to be the underlying cause.
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20/183. Prevention of paraplegia in transluminally placed endoluminal prosthetic grafts for descending thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a temporary balloon occlusion test for the prevention of paraplegia following transluminally placed endoluminal prosthetic grafts for descending thoracic aortic aneurysms. SUBJECTS AND methods: Two occlusion balloons were inserted via the brachial and femoral arteries and positioned in the proximal and distal neck of the descending thoracic aortic aneurysms using fluoroscopy. After temporary occlusion of the thoracic aorta by inflation of both the proximal and distal balloons, the evoked spinal potential was measured for 15 mins. A maximum amplitude during temporary balloon occlusion test decreasing by more than 20% of the pre-balloon occlusion level was considered to be significant, enough to not perform transluminally placed endoluminal prosthetic grafts, but instead an open repair. The test was applied in 12 cases (9 males and 3 females, 50-86 years old). All aneurysms were located between the Th6 and Th12 with a maximum diameter of 40-70 mm, and average of 56 mm. RESULTS: The changes in maximum amplitude of evoked spinal potential remained within 20% of the value before balloon occlusion in 11 cases. Transluminally placed endoluminal prosthetic grafts were performed in these 11 cases and no instance of paraplegia or other complication relating to the test was observed. Deployment of stent-grafts was successful in 10 cases (91%). CONCLUSION: It is suggested that the preoperative measurement of evoked spinal potential during temporary balloon occlusion is clinically useful for the assessment of the risk to paraplegia occurring in transluminally placed endoluminal prosthetic grafts.
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