Cases reported "Paraplegia"

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21/183. Transient paraparesis: a complication of the surgical management of Scheuermann's kyphosis secondary to thoracic stenosis.

    STUDY DESIGN: Transient paraparesis during the operative management of a 16-year-old patient with Scheuermann's kyphosis secondary to thoracic stenosis is reported. OBJECTIVE: To describe a treatable cause for paraparesis in a patient with Scheuermann's kyphosis undergoing surgical treatment. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Cord injury in the surgical treatment of Scheuermann's kyphosis is a rare event, yet it is felt to be more common in the surgical correction of kyphosis than in surgery for scoliosis. Suggested etiologies have included vascular insufficiency, hypotension, direct mechanical trauma, and neural element stretch. Concomitant thoracic spinal stenosis predisposing to neurologic injury during surgical manipulation has not been reported. methods: A 16-year-old boy with progressive Scheuermann's kyphosis measuring 80 degrees from T7 to T12 underwent an anteroposterior spinal fusion with somatosensory-evoked potential monitoring and wake-up tests. During the instrumentation posteriorly, somatosensory-evoked potential monitoring became markedly abnormal. This was followed by a wake-up test that demonstrated the patient's inability to move either of his lower extremities. All instrumentation was removed. The patient had recovered neurologic function by the time he reached the recovery room. A computed tomography myelogram was performed on the third postoperative day, which demonstrated severe thoracic stenosis from T8 to T10. The patient was returned to the operating room 1 week later to undergo a posterior laminectomy from T7 to T11 and instrumented fusion from T5 to L2. Somatosensory-evoked potential monitoring was stable throughout this procedure, and the wake-up test was normal. RESULTS: The patient's postoperative course and subsequent 2-year follow-up period were unremarkable. He progressed to clinical and radiographic union and maintained a normal lower extremity neurologic examination. CONCLUSIONS: A treatable cause for paraparesis secondary to the surgical treatment of Scheuermann's kyphosis is presented. The author currently obtains a thoracic magnetic resonance image (MRI) before the surgical correction of any patients with Scheuermann's kyphosis.
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22/183. Brown tumor of the thoracic spine in a patient on long-term hemodialysis.

    A 39-year-old woman on long-term hemodialysis presented with a history of rapidly progressive paraplegia. Radiological examination showed a compression fracture of seventh thoracic vertebra and expansive mass lesion in the posterior elements of the fourth thoracic vertebra. Laboratory tests on admission showed serum calcium of 11.9 mg/dl, phosphate 6.0 mg/dl, and the high-sensitive parathyroid hormone level of 139,191 pg/ml measured by radioimmunoassay. Percutaneous biopsy of the expansive mass showed a large number of multinucleated giant cells in a fibroblastic stroma containing abundant hemosiderin. Tumor resection and anterior interbody fusion with artificial bone graft was performed on 14th hospital day. paraplegia gradually improved postoperatively. Total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation of parathyroid gland were subsequently performed. Nodular hyperplasia was evident in the parathyroid glands by light microscopy. Brown tumor is rarely found in vertebral bone and this is the sixth case of such tumor in secondary hyperparathyroidism.
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23/183. Anterior spinal cord injury with preserved neurogenic 'motor' evoked potentials.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe two cases in which intraoperative monitoring of neurogenic 'motor' evoked potentials (NMEPs) did not identify a spinal cord injury that resulted in paraplegia. methods: Bilateral tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and NMEP testing was performed in two patients during spinal deformity corrective surgery using standard stimulation and recording parameters. These potentials were obtained repetitively throughout the primary procedures and were performed again during a subsequent procedure that took place after the discovery of paraplegia. RESULTS: SEP and NMEP signals were preserved in both patients and no adverse events were identified during the initial procedures. Postoperatively, paraplegia was identified immediately upon recovery from anesthesia and preserved posterior column function was apparent on clinical exam. In the procedures following the discovery of paraplegia, SEP and NMEP signals remained comparable with signals elicited in the initial surgeries. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these cases and previously published experimental evidence, we conclude that while 'NMEPs' remain a useful second test of spinal cord function, they are not reliable indicators of motor tract function. An alternate term, such as 'spinally-elicited peripheral nerve responses' should be used.
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24/183. Primary amyloidoma of the thoracic spine presenting with acute paraplegia.

    BACKGROUND: Primary solitary amyloidoma of the spine is a rare disease characterized by localized deposition of amyloid. To the best of our knowledge, there have been only 14 cases previously reported in the literature. patients with focal spinal amyloidoma usually have relatively long symptomatic periods preoperatively, ranging from 3 weeks to 6 years (mean: 12 months). Only two reported patients had acute paraplegia. We add a third case of a thoracic spine amyloidoma presenting with acute paraplegia. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 65-year-old man presented with a three-day history of progressive paraplegia and urinary retention. He was found to have severe cord compression at T2 on magnetic resonance imaging. He underwent emergent decompressive laminectomy with instrumentation for spinal stabilization. Histopathology revealed abundant amyloid deposits. A systemic work-up was negative for amyloidosis. The patient showed marked neurological improvement with residual mild spastic gait after 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Primary spinal amyloidoma with acute paraplegia is rare. One-stage surgery combining prompt decompression and stabilization of the spinal column is mandatory in cases of spinal amyloidoma with acute myelopathy, because primary solitary amyloidoma carries a good prognosis.
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25/183. Delayed postoperative paraplegia complicating repair of type A dissection.

    We describe the very rare event of delayed transient paraplegia after repair of type A dissection of the aorta and discuss therapeutic options. We also suggest insertion of a spinal catheter as soon as there are signs or symptoms of spinal cord injury to drain spinal fluid and maximize the effect of elevated spinal cord perfusion pressure.
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26/183. Complications of lumbar drainage after thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    OBJECTIVES: paraplegia remains a frequent complication of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair. Many adjunct therapies have been developed to address this complication. Lumbar drainage is frequently used in an attempt to decrease intrathecal pressure and improve intramedullary perfusion pressure. The effectiveness of this therapy is unclear, and the complications of lumbar drainage used for this indication are unknown. We present a case of intraspinal hematoma with significant neurologic deficit after TAAA repair and review the associated complications of lumbar drains placed for TAAA. methods: The charts of all patients undergoing operations for TAAA repair were reviewed. patients who underwent perioperative placement of a lumbar drain were included regardless of aneurysm type or etiology. Demographics, Crawford grade, and perioperative parameters and complications were reviewed. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients underwent TAAA repair with 62 (95%) receiving a preoperative lumbar drain. There were two (3.2%) intraspinal hemorrhagic complications, including one patient with a poor neurologic outcome. No infections or other complications directly related to drainage were identified. Multivariate logistic regression analysis failed to demonstrate a significant association between lumbar drain complications and perioperative and intraoperative parameters such as blood loss or hypotension, level of drain placement, and Crawford grade. CONCLUSIONS: Lumbar drainage is a frequent adjunct to TAAA repair. However, placement of the drain itself can be associated with significant complications whose aggravating factors may be unidentifiable. Complications resulting from lumbar drainage should be considered in any patient who has postoperative lower extremity neurologic deficits.
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27/183. Risk of spinal cord ischemia after endograft repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    BACKGROUND: Surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aneurysms may be associated with a significant risk of perioperative morbidity including spinal cord ischemia, which occurs at a rate of between 5% and 21%. spinal cord ischemia after endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) has also been reported. This investigation reviews the occurrence of spinal cord ischemia after endovascular repair of descending TAAs at the Mount Sinai Medical Center. patients AND methods: Between May 1997 and April 2001, 53 patients underwent endovascular exclusion of their TAA. Preprocedure computed tomography scanning and angiography were performed on all patients. All were performed in the operating room using C-arm fluoroscopy. Physical examinations and computed tomography scans were performed at discharge and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively and then annually thereafter. spinal cord ischemia developed in three of the 53 patients (5.7%) postoperatively. In one patient, cord ischemia developed that manifested as early postoperative left leg weakness occurring after concomitant open infrarenal abdominal and endovascular TAA repair. The neurologic deficit resolved 12 hours after spinal drainage, steroid bolus, and the maintenance of hemodynamic stability. The remaining two patients developed delayed onset paralysis, one patient on the second postoperative day and the other patient 1 month postrepair. Both of these patients had previous abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, and both required long grafts to exclude an extensive area of their thoracic aortas. Irreversible cord ischemia and paralysis occurred in both of these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular repair of TAA has shown a promising reduction in operative morbidity; however, the risk of spinal cord ischemia remains. Concomitant or previous abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and long segment thoracic aortic exclusion appear to be important risk factors. Spinal cord protective measures (ie, cerebrospinal fluid drainage, steroids, prevention of hypotension) should be used for patients with the aforementioned risk factors undergoing endovascular TAA repair.
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28/183. Acute paraplegia caused by a spontaneous extradural heamatoma of the conus medullaris area.

    Four patients with a typical clinical picture of spinal extradural heamatoma of the conus area are presented. Initial symptoms were acute low back pains. The development of symmetrical paraparesis took place in a matter of hours, and spread to total paraplegia. The sensory level was as high as the groins and bladder and rectum paralysis developed early. All patients were over 63, mean age 67 years. Two patients had coagulation defects, one was on anticoagulants, and the other had a severe thrombocytosis. Two patients had used salicylates for rheumatic pains; in one of those patients there was a hemangioma on PAD . In 2 patients, the neuroradiological diagnosis was confirmed with rhizography (Figs. 1 and 2); in the third patient the rhizography was misleading but in her and in a fourth patient the oxygen-myelography was diagnostic, showing an extradural compression in the conus area. Haematomas were removed in all patients through an extensive decompressive laminectomy within 24 hours from the onset of the symptoms. Recovery was good in 2 cases, and fair in one patient who had a poor recovery of the bladder function. In on patient, both paraplegia and bladder paralysis were permanent after 3 years. The differential diagnosis by myelography between the cauda equina syndrome caused by typical disc compression from the one side and from vascular medullary syndromes and myelitis from the other side should be clear. For good functional recovery, early myelography and operative decompression are imperative.
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29/183. Post-operative paraplegia following spinal cord infarction.

    Thoracic epidural analgesia is a frequently utilised technique. Neurological complications are uncommon, but of grave consequence with significant morbidity. Spinal cord infarction following epidural anaesthesia is rare. We present a case where a hypertensive patient underwent an elective sigmoid colectomy under combined general/epidural anaesthesia for a suspected malignant abdominal mass. An epidural infusion was used for intra-operative and post-operative analgesia. During surgery, the blood pressure was labile and she was hypotensive. Postoperatively, the patient became confused, pyrexial and tachycardic and developed systemic inflammatory response syndrome requiring intensive care management. She developed a flaccid paralysis at L3 level with areflexia, analgesia and impaired sensation. A spinal cord infarct in the region of the conus extending into the thoracic cord was diagnosed. Complications of epidural anaesthesia are easily recognised when they develop immediately; their relationship to the anaesthesia and the post-operative period may be misjudged or underestimated when they appear after a delay, if neurological signs are masked by lack of patient cooperation and drowsiness or if the epidural anaesthesia is prolonged by long-acting drugs. New neurological deficits should be evaluated promptly to document the evolving neurological status and further testing or intervention should be arranged if appropriate. The association with epidural anaesthesia as a cause of paraplegia is reviewed. The aetiological factors that may have contributed to this tragic neurological complication are discussed.
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30/183. Destructive osteoblastoma of the cervical spine with complete neurologic recovery.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient with a large tumor lesion of the 6th vertebrae affecting surrounding soft tissue, and symptoms of cord compression. Histologic diagnosis indicated a destructive osteoblastoma following dorsal and anterior resection and internal fixation. SETTING: University Hospital, germany. methods: A 23-year old male patient was admitted with a 2-month history of increasing upper extremity weakness and pain. X-ray and MRI indicated massive involvement of the anterior and posterior elements of the 6th vertebrae with a large soft tissue mass. Following emergency decompression and dorsal stabilization, the pathologic investigation revealed a destructive osteoblastoma. Subsequent dorsal and anterior resection with internal fixation were performed. RESULTS: The patient initially presented with symptoms of beginning paraplegia of C6/7. According to the neurologic classification of spinal cord injury, motor function score was 56 and sensory function score 83. After emergency dorsal decompression and internal fixation with Luque-Instrumentation he showed increasing neurological recovery. Complete neurological recovery was achieved at 2 and 12-months postoperatively, following secondary dorsal and anterior resection of the tumor and internal fixation with bone cement (PalacosR) and Harms-cage. Radiologic signs of local recurrence were identified 1 year postoperatively. CONCLUSION: osteoblastoma of the cervical spine is rare. patients often present with severe neurological symptoms due to significant tumor mass. Complete resection is necessary to regain full recovery, to prevent recurrence and, in some cases, malignant transformation.
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