Cases reported "Parasitemia"

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1/3. leishmania donovani invasion of the blood in a child with dermal leishmaniasis.

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is highly endemic in eastern Mediterranean countries. The causative organisms are leishmania tropica or leishmania major but, further west, variants of leishmania infantum frequently cause cutaneous leishmaniasis. We report a young girl from Beirut with an acute cutaneous leishmaniasis in whom the causative organism was cultured from both the skin lesion and the blood in the absence of any signs or symptoms typical of systemic involvement. The parasite was found to have a zymodeme typical of organisms belonging to the L. donovani complex. With the negative past history and in the absence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in her serum, post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis is an unlikely possibility, especially in view of the rarity of the complication in this part of the world. The infection was probably acquired during a recent visit to Aleppo, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is hyperendemic as similar cases have not been reported in Beirut. This case indicates the need to consider L. infantum strains in addition to L. tropica in cutaneous disease in Aleppo. This case also demonstrates that L. infantum can spread by the haematogenous route, even in a child without evidence of the immunosuppression, which usually predisposes to such spread.
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ranking = 1
keywords = leishmaniasis, world
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2/3. Visceral leishmaniasis and hiv co-infection: a rare case of pulmonary and oral localization.

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has increased as a complicating infection in subjects with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) in countries bordering the Mediterranean sea. The clinical course as well as organ involvement of VL are often atypical in hiv positive subjects. In this study a case of VL with pulmonary and oral mucose localisation in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), is reported. These findings, together with the presence of the parasite in the peripheral blood smear, confirm that in hiv positive patients the impaired immune system allows the spreading and the atypical localisation of the Leishmania amastigotes more easily than in immuno-competent individuals. In endemic areas and in hiv positive subjects a systemic and careful parasitological follow-up is necessary to ensure that any clinical form of leishmaniasis is not overlooked.
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ranking = 0.6666496620329
keywords = leishmaniasis
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3/3. Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis comparative ultrastructure of host-parasite interactions.

    The comparative ultrastructure of host-parasite interactions is described for the first time in patients with visceral (VL) and cutaneous (CL) leishmaniasis. In patients with VL, the parasite invades the bone marrow (BM) macrophages (Mcs) and neutrophils, while in patients with CL, the parasite invades the dermal fibroblasts in addition to Mcs. The skin Mcs seem to have more lethal effects on the parasite than the BM Mcs; this is possibly due to the presence of numerous melanosomes with acid phosphatase activity in the Mcs digestive vacuole. In patients with high level of VL parasitaemia, the parasite may induce the BM reticulocytes to phagocytose both the parasite and mature erythrocytes, i.e. lost recognition. In patients with low level of VLparasitaemia, the parasite may induce the BM Mcs to be haemophagocytic, i.e. temporarily mimick malignant histiocytosis until the course of treatment. In early stages of CL infection, the cellular infiltrate consists of the monocyte-macrophage system, plasma cells, lymphocytes and fibroblasts; while in the late stages, two types of epithelioid cells (ECs) are added to the infiltrate and are involved in the formation of tuberculous granulomas. Type I ECs thought to produce a granuloma factor, while type II ECs possibly precedes healing by fibrosis. However, the severity of host-parasite interactions seems to depend mainly on species of the parasite, the degree of parasitaemia, the type of infected tissue(s), and the variation of host tissue reaction against the parasite from one patient to another.
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ranking = 0.55554138502742
keywords = leishmaniasis
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