Cases reported "parasitemia"

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1/47. A cluster of transfusion-associated babesiosis cases traced to a single asymptomatic donor.

    CONTEXT: The risk of acquiring babesiosis by blood transfusion is largely unknown since in areas where it is endemic it is often an asymptomatic infection. OBJECTIVE: To investigate and treat a cluster of blood transfusion-associated babesiosis cases. DESIGN: Case series and epidemiologic investigation. SETTING: Urban inner-city hospital. patients: Six persons who received babesia microti-infected blood components from a donor. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: diagnosis and successful therapy of babesiosis following transfusion. RESULTS: Six individuals (1 adult, 1 child, and 4 neonates) were exposed to products from a single blood donation by an asymptomatic Babesia-infected donor. Three of the 6 exposed patients became parasitemic. polymerase chain reaction testing, animal inoculation studies, and indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing were used to confirm the presence of babesia microti in the donor's blood and to establish the presence of infection in 3 of the 6 recipients. The 3 infected recipients and 1 additional recipient were treated without incident. CONCLUSION: physicians should consider babesiosis in the differential diagnosis of a febrile hemolytic disorder after blood transfusion. Prompt diagnosis is important since babesiosis is responsive to antibiotic therapy and, untreated, can be a fatal disease in certain risk groups. ( info)

2/47. Rare quadruple malaria infection in Irian Jaya indonesia.

    We report an exceptional finding from a blood slide collected in a remote area in the western half of new guinea Island (Irian Jaya Province, indonesia). One adolescent patient was found patently coinfected with all 4 known human malaria species, plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium vivax, plasmodium malariae, and plasmodium ovale. Diagnostic erythrocytic stages of all 4 species were clearly seen in the peripheral blood. A nested polymerase chain reaction, using species-specific primer pairs to detect dna, helped substantiate this finding. Previous reports from africa, thailand, and new guinea have detected all 4 species in a population but not simultaneously in an individual with a patent, microscopically detectable infection. We believe this quadruple infection represents the first reported natural case of all 4 human malaria parasites observed concurrently in the peripheral blood from a single Giemsa-stained slide. ( info)

3/47. An outbreak of acute eosinophilic myositis attributed to human sarcocystis parasitism.

    Seven members of a 15-man U.S. military team that had operated in rural malaysia developed an acute illness consisting of fever, myalgias, bronchospasm, fleeting pruritic rashes, transient lymphadenopathy, and subcutaneous nodules associated with eosinophilia, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and elevated levels of muscle creatinine kinase. Sarcocysts of an unidentified sarcocystis species were found in skeletal muscle biopsies of the index case. albendazole ameliorated symptoms in the index case; however, his symptoms persisted for more than 5 years. Symptoms in 5 other men were mild to moderate and self-limited, and 1 team member with laboratory abnormalities was asymptomatic. Of 8 team members tested for antibody to sarcocystis, 6 were positive; of 4 with the eosinophilic myositis syndrome who were tested, all were positive. We attribute this outbreak of eosinophilic myositis to accidental tissue parasitism by sarcocystis. ( info)

4/47. Pseudo-reticulocytosis as a result of malaria parasites.

    Recently fully automated methods for enumerating reticulocytes have become available as an integral function in routine haematology analysers. In such methods, all intraerythrocytic nucleic acid is stained and can be regarded as representing reticulocytes. It has previously been shown that Howell-Jolly bodies may be counted as reticulocytes in automated flow cytometric methods. In the present paper, data from two patients are described indicating that severe malaria infection may lead to falsely increased reticulocyte counts, at least in the CELL-DYN(R) 4000 haematology analyser. In this instrument, the intraerythrocytic nuclear material of the parasites will be stained and counted as reticulocytes. This phenomenon appears to be independent of the type of Plasmodium infection. Clinical haematology laboratories should be aware of this potential source of pseudo-reticulocytosis. ( info)

5/47. leishmania donovani invasion of the blood in a child with dermal leishmaniasis.

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is highly endemic in eastern Mediterranean countries. The causative organisms are leishmania tropica or leishmania major but, further west, variants of leishmania infantum frequently cause cutaneous leishmaniasis. We report a young girl from Beirut with an acute cutaneous leishmaniasis in whom the causative organism was cultured from both the skin lesion and the blood in the absence of any signs or symptoms typical of systemic involvement. The parasite was found to have a zymodeme typical of organisms belonging to the L. donovani complex. With the negative past history and in the absence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in her serum, post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis is an unlikely possibility, especially in view of the rarity of the complication in this part of the world. The infection was probably acquired during a recent visit to Aleppo, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is hyperendemic as similar cases have not been reported in Beirut. This case indicates the need to consider L. infantum strains in addition to L. tropica in cutaneous disease in Aleppo. This case also demonstrates that L. infantum can spread by the haematogenous route, even in a child without evidence of the immunosuppression, which usually predisposes to such spread. ( info)

6/47. Use of polymerase chain reaction to diagnose the fifth reported US case of autochthonous transmission of trypanosoma cruzi, in tennessee, 1998.

    In July 1998, the mother of an 18-month-old boy in rural tennessee found a triatomine bug in his crib, which she saved because it resembled a bug shown on a television program about insects that prey on mammals. The gut contents of the triatoma sanguisuga were found, by light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to be infected with trypanosoma cruzi; PCR products hybridized with T. cruzi-specific oligonucleotide probes. Whole-blood specimens obtained from the child in July and August were negative by buffy-coat examination and hemoculture but positive by PCR and dna hybridization, suggesting that he had low-level parasitemia. Specimens obtained after treatment with benznidazole were negative. He did not develop anti-T. cruzi antibody; 19 relatives and neighbors also were seronegative. Two of 3 raccoons trapped in the vicinity had positive hemocultures for T. cruzi. The child's case of T. cruzi infection-the fifth reported US autochthonous case-would have been missed without his mother's attentiveness and the availability of sensitive molecular techniques. ( info)

7/47. Automated exchange transfusion for life-threatening plasmodium falciparum malaria--lessons relating to prophylaxis and treatment.

    We report a case of traveller to kenya who contracted severe plasmodium falciparum malaria complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute renal failure. She had taken no antimalarial prophylaxis in view of concerns in the media regarding the adverse effects of mefloquine. There was a protracted delay before the diagnosis of malaria was made. Clinical recovery occurred following treatment with intravenous quinine, haemofiltration and manual/automated red-cell exchange transfusions. Automated red-cell exchange transfusion resulted in a marked decrease in the parasitaemia, before a response to quinine therapy would have been anticipated, leading to a successful outcome thereafter. In conjunction with other groups we therefore feel that exchange transfusions should be considered in seriously ill patients with falciparum malaria, multiorgan complications and parasitaemias greater than 10%. ( info)

8/47. Automated erythrocytapheresis in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria.

    Removal of parasitized erythrocytes is generally considered to be of value as adjunctive therapy in severe falciparum malaria with high parasitaemia. This is commonly achieved by exchange transfusion. We describe three cases of severe falciparum malaria treated by automated erythrocytapheresis (red cell exchange) in addition to quinine and conventional supportive therapy. Erythrocytapheresis consists of removal of the red-cell fraction by apheresis. plasma, leukocyte and platelet fractions are returned to the patient. In all cases, dramatic reduction in parasitaemia was achieved within 2 h with subsequent complete clinical recovery. Erythrocytapheresis has significant advantages over exchange transfusion in terms of speed, efficiency, haemodynamic stability and retention of plasma components such as clotting factors and may thus represent an improvement in adjunctive therapy for severe malaria. ( info)

9/47. Automated RBC exchange transfusion:treatment for cerebral malaria.

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria is a life-threatening complication of plasmodium falciparum infection. RBC exchange transfusion can reduce the level of parasitemia in this setting. Experience with automated RBC exchange for cerebral malaria may be limited, as most cases occur when the necessary equipment and blood components are not readily available. case reports: Three patients were admitted with cerebral malaria. parasites were found in more than 30 percent of RBCs in two cases and in more than 60 percent of RBCs in the third case. Many RBCs contained multiple organisms. In each case, antimalarial therapy was begun, and an automated RBC exchange was performed emergently with a cell separator. Exchange transfusion was repeated within 24 hours for two patients. parasitemia levels were less than 1 percent in all patients 24 hours after the last exchange. The neurologic status of these patients returned to baseline, and they were discharged 7 to 18 days after admission. CONCLUSION: Automated RBC exchange transfusion can rapidly reduce the level of parasitemia and restore neurologic functioning in patients with cerebral malaria. ( info)

10/47. Transfusion-associated falciparum malaria successfully treated with red blood cell exchange transfusion.

    Falciparum malaria is frequently associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The use of exchange transfusion as a therapeutic modality for severe cases of malaria has been described previously. We describe a case of a 49 year-old African American gentleman with a history of hemoglobin-SC disease who presented with a severe case of plasmodium falciparum malaria 3 weeks after having received an infected blood transfusion. His peripheral smear showed the presence of numerous intraerythrocytic ring forms and "banana-shaped" gametocytes with a high-grade parasitemia, estimated at 18%. He was treated with antimalarial chemotherapy and also underwent a 12-unit red blood cell exchange transfusion, decreasing his parasite load to < 1%, as determined on repeat smear. It is prudent to be aware of the efficacy of this adjunctive treatment, especially with ever-increasing travel and a resultant increase in the prevalence of tropical diseases in the united states. ( info)
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