Cases reported "Parathyroid Neoplasms"

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11/229. Gamma-probe localization of a parathyroid adenoma in the reoperative neck.

    Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas in patients with hyperparathyroidism currently relies on a combination of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy, and venous sampling of parathyroid hormone. No procedure is universally reliable, however, and in reoperation for missed parathyroid adenomas, development of an optimal preoperative localization strategy becomes especially problematic. We report the case of a patient with hyperparathyroidism who required reoperation for a missed parathyroid adenoma despite preoperative localization with (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy. (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy was done 2.5 hours before reoperation. On reoperation, a gamma-detecting probe (C-Track; Care Wise Medical Corporation, Morgan Hill, CA) introduced through a right neck incision was used to localize a 4-cm adenoma within 45 minutes. No significant radiation hazard existed, and no special handling of the specimen was required. The patient's hyperparathyroidism resolved within 24 hours postoperatively. Therefore, this intraoperative technique may prove to be a useful adjunct to preoperative localization studies of parathyroid adenomas, particularly in patients requiring reoperation for persistent postsurgical hyperparathyroidism.
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12/229. Documented hyperparathyroidism of thirty-six years' duration.

    The fascinating history of the first Memorial Hospital patient who was diagnosed as having hyperparathyroidism is reviewed. The illness presented as a cystic mass in a femur in 1929, which was treated with radiation. When the patient was first seen at Memorial Hospital in 1931, the diagnosis of osteitis fibrosa cystica was made; serum calcium was 14 mg/100 ml. In 1932, 6 years after Mandl performed the first parathyroidectomy ever for osteitis fibrosa cystica, this patient's neck was explored, and a right hemithyroidectomy was done, with removal of two normal parathyroid glands. The parathyroid tumor was finally located and partially removed in 1937 after a second failure at neck exploration in 1936. Correspondence between Dr. Edward D. Churchill at the massachusetts General Hospital and Dr. Bradley Coley at Memorial Hospital indicated the concern at that time about uncontrollable tetany, which had been fatal in some contemporary cases and which had led to the practice of only partially removing the tumor. Following this, the patient was observed with documented hypercalcemia and chemical evidence of hyperparathyrodism until age 79. The physical and chemical abnormalities over the years up to and including her last exam are presented. The case is important not only from the historical viewpoint, but because it lends a perspective to long-term parathyroid disease, which is becoming less appreciated in this day of the routine serum calcium by SMA-12 screening. The question of partial parathyroidectomy for adenoma or hyperplasia is reviewed, and the question of observation of patients with mild hypercalcemia who probably have parathyroid tumors is discussed.
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13/229. hyperparathyroidism-an unusual case.

    A case of primary hyperparathyroidism is described that presented unusual features. The patient had been treated previously for squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and therefore it was necessary to exclude ectopic hyperparathyroidism. The results of the tests generally used to distinguish primary from ectopic hyperparathyroidism-the serum chloride level, the serum calcium response to cortisone suppression and the absence of residual or recurrent tumour-suggested that the patient did have the primary form of the disorder. Exploration of the neck revealed no parathyroid tumour or hyperplasia, and the mediastinal parathyroid adenoma was localized only by determination of parathyroid hormone in the venous drainage from the neck and mediastinum.
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14/229. Acute extracapsular parathyroid hemorrhage: case report and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient with extracapsular parathyroid hemorrhage and review the signs and symptoms of this condition. methods: We report a case of extracapsular parathyroid hemorrhage in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism and present an overview of previously reported cases. RESULTS: A 48-year-old woman with documented primary hyperparathyroidism, who was awaiting surgical intervention, had acute onset of a neck mass, neck pain, and dysphagia. She was found to have sustained a spontaneous extracapsular hemorrhage of a parathyroid adenoma. hypercalcemia persisted, and she subsequently underwent curative parathyroidectomy for the primary hyperparathyroidism. We also identified 15 previously reported cases of extracapsular parathyroid hemorrhage and summarized the most common manifestations-most notably, a neck mass or swelling, ecchymoses of the neck and chest, dysphagia, neck pain, hoarseness, and dyspnea. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should be aware of the potential for occurrence of extracapsular parathyroid hemorrhage in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. When this condition occurs, severe hypercalcemia or acute hypocalcemia may be present. hypercalcemia is often persistent; however, autoinfarction of the parathyroid adenoma is possible.
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15/229. Non-secreting atypical parathyroid adenoma.

    Parathyroid tumors can be divided in adenomas and carcinomas, usually detected by hypercalcemia. We report a case of parathyroid adenoma in a young man, who complained of a pressure in the left neck region. physical examination revealed a firm mass in the neck, without lymphnodes. Although Ca (9.7 mg/dl), phosphorus (3.3 mg/dl) and intact-PTH (49 pg/ml) were normal, imaging techniques (computed tomography scan and sestamibi substraction scan) suggested that the mass could arise from the parathyroid gland. histology and immune staining for chromogranin and parathyroid hormone confirmed the parathyroid nature of the mass. Histological criteria defined the lesion as an atypical parathyroid adenoma. We review the pathology, diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid adenomas in its non-secreting atypical form.
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16/229. Spontaneous rupture of a parathyroid adenoma presenting as a massive cervical hemorrhage: report of a case.

    We report an unusual case of spontaneous rupture of a parathyroid adenoma causing cervical hemorrhage. A 60-year-old woman presented to our hospital after the sudden development of extensive ecchymosis of her neck and upper anterior chest wall. Computed tomography (CT) scanning revealed a hematoma in the left retrotracheal space, and laboratory examinations revealed significant hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and a high level of intact parathyroid hormone. Primary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed, but it was not until the hematoma had subsided, 4 months after her initial presentation, that a parathyroid adenoma was revealed by CT. An operation was performed, and a parathyroid adenoma with hemosiderin deposition was histologically diagnosed. Although this phenomenon is unusual, all endocrine surgeons should be well aware of the possibility of its occurrence.
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17/229. Intracranial metastatic parathyroid carcinoma: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare entity, and fewer than 200 cases have been described. It is a slowly progressive disease characterized by frequent recurrences and local metastases. Most patients with parathyroid carcinoma die from metabolic complications of hyperparathyroidism. Five-year survival rates range from 25 to 50%. Functional parathyroid carcinoma is a rare cause of hyperparathyroidism that affects only 0.32 to 5% of all patients who undergo surgery for hypercalcemia. A review of the literature revealed only one other reported case of metastatic intracranial parathyroid carcinoma, in a patient who experienced local recurrence and metastatic disease when she was diagnosed with an intracranial lesion. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 44-year-old African-American man with recent-onset, right lower-extremity weakness and hypercalcemia 4 years after he underwent a parathyroidectomy for parathyroid carcinoma. At presentation, his parathyroid level was 467 pg/ml, and his serum calcium level was 15.2 mg/dl. Imaging studies revealed an isolated enhancing left mesial frontoparietal mass. A systemic Cardiolite study demonstrated a single focus of radiotracer uptake in this region. No abnormal uptake was demonstrated in the neck or elsewhere. INTERVENTION: The patient underwent a frameless stereotactic interventional magnetic resonance imaging-guided resection via a parasagittal interhemispheric approach. Pathological findings were consistent with parathyroid carcinoma. After resection, his right lower-extremity weakness and secondary hyperparathyroidism resolved. CONCLUSION: The typical natural history of parathyroid carcinoma concludes with death from complications of hyperparathyroidism. This case report supports aggressive surgical management to eliminate all parathyroid hormone-secreting malignant tissue and prevent metabolic complications. In this patient, intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging was helpful to ensure complete resection.
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18/229. Coexistence of parathyroid carcinoma and non-medullary carcinoma of the thyroid.

    A case of 35-year-old woman with parathyroid cancer is presented. Five years ago she underwent surgery for follicular thyroid cancer. Parathyroid cancer was evidenced by palpable, solid, irregularly shaped cervical tumor 5 cm in diameter. The patient had severe hyperparathyroidism confirmed by biochemical findings of hypercalcemia reaching 16 mg%, hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatasemia. serum parathormone level was 23-fold higher than the norm. These findings were accompanied by polyuria, polidypsia, symptoms of bone damage and renal calcification. After the surgery the patient's condition improved significantly despite persistent hyperparathyroidism. The level of parathormone decreased, but was still 11 times higher than the norm. Two months after the surgery she noticed a single node on her neck. The patient was re-operated for recurrence of parathyroid cancer. serum parathormone level was then 6-8 times above the norm. Medical treatment with furosemide, calcitonin and biphosphonate resulted in normalization of calcemia and phosphatemia. Further management will aim at localization of foci of hyperactive parathyroid tissue in order to enable radical reoperation. The case is reported because of rare occurrence of parathyroid carcinoma as well as because the carcinoma occurred in a patient who previously had follicular thyroid cancer. There are no reports of coexistence of these two neoplasms in available literature.
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19/229. Video-assisted parathyroidectomy by a skin-lifting method for primary hyperparathyroidism.

    OBJECTIVE: The use of endoscopic surgical procedures has rapidly spread to abdominal and thoracic surgeries and subsequently to surgeries of the neck region. Several surgeons initiated endoscopic parathyroidectomy using CO2 insufflation to create the working space; however, they reported various complications. We describe here a skin-lifting method that may have few complications. methods: A 65-year-old man was diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism due to a solitary adenoma of the left inferior parathyroid gland. A 3-cm oblique incision was made below the left clavicle, and a 5-mm incision was made on the lateral neck. After the skin was lifted up, we performed video-assisted parathyroidectomy. RESULTS: Parathyroid extirpation took 2 hours and blood loss was minimal. The patient had minimal pain and no complications postoperatively. serum concentrations of calcium and intact parathyroid hormone were normalized on the next day. CONCLUSION: Using the skin-lifting method, we obtained a sufficient operative view and encountered no complications. This procedure is cosmetically desirable, and we consider it a feasible alternative for the treatment of parathyroid adenoma.
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20/229. Familial isolated parathyroid adenoma in a consanguineous family.

    The 23-year-old Caucasian male propositus presented with symptomatic hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia and normocalciuria for 2 months. His 29-year-old brother had undergone an operation for recurrent parathyroid adenoma at age 26 and 28. No other member of the family was affected. His father and mother were second-degree relatives. Laboratory studies showed primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), while the remaining endocrine studies and genetic testing for multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 and 2A were normal. technetium-cardiolite scintigraphy and ultrasound scans revealed a parathyroid mass at the left lower neck. Apart from bilateral hearing loss due to gentamicin treatment as a pre-term child, the patient was in of good health. Signs or symptoms of other endocrinopathies were absent. The patient was referred for parathyroidectomy with subsequent autotransplantation of the remaining glands into his sternocleidomastoid muscle. Histological examination revealed an adenoma with oncocytic differentiation, similar to that seen in his brother. The disease may follow a recessive mode of inheritance or may be due to a dominant germ-cell mutation in one of the parents. The presented case may ultimately help in elucidating the molecular genetic basis of this rare form of pHPT.
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