Cases reported "Paresis"

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1/119. Nontraumatic acute spinal subdural hematoma: report of five cases and review of the literature.

    Acute subdural spinal hematoma occurs rarely; however, when it does occur, it may have disastrous consequences. The authors assessed the outcome of surgery for this lesion in relation to causative factors and diagnostic imaging (computerized tomography [CT], CT myelography), as well as eventual preservation of the subarachnoid space. The authors reviewed 106 cases of nontraumatic acute subdural spinal hematoma (101 published cases and five of their own) in terms of cause, diagnosis, treatment, and long-term outcome. Fifty-one patients (49%) were men and 55 (51%) were women. In 70% of patients the spinal segment involved was in the lumbar or thoracolumbar spine. In 57 cases (54%) there was a defect in the hemostatic mechanism. spinal puncture was performed in 50 patients (47%). Late surgical treatment was performed in 59 cases (56%): outcome was good in 25 cases (42%) (in 20 of these patients preoperative neurological evaluation had shown mild deficits or paraparesis, and three patients had presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH]). The outcome was poor in 34 cases (58%; 23 patients with paraplegia and 11 with SAH). The formation of nontraumatic acute spinal subdural hematomas may result from coagulation abnormalities and iatrogenic causes such as spinal puncture. Their effect on the spinal cord and/or nerve roots may be limited to a mere compressive mechanism when the subarachnoid space is preserved and the hematoma is confined between the dura and the arachnoid. It seems likely that the theory regarding the opening of the dural compartment, verified at the cerebral level, is applicable to the spinal level too. Early surgical treatment is always indicated when the patient's neurological status progressively deteriorates. The best results can be obtained in patients who do not experience SAH. In a few selected patients in whom neurological impairment is minimal, conservative treatment is possible.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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2/119. Cerebral arteriovenous malformations and movement disorders.

    A series of six patients with movement disorders associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) is reported. The AVMs were classified according to the Spetzler-Martin classification as grade V (one patient), grade IV (four patients), and as grade III (one patient). One patient had action-induced hemidystonia caused by a contralateral frontoparietal AVM which compressed the putamen and was supplied partially by enlarged lenticulostriate arteries. Two patients presented with unilateral cortical tremor associated with contralateral high-frontal cortical/subcortical AVMs sparing the basal ganglia. Another patient developed hemidystonia and hemichorea-hemiballism after bleeding of a contralateral temporooccipital AVM and subsequent ischemia. Two patients had focal dystonia after thalamic and basal ganglia hemorrhage from AVMs. Five patients were operated on. The movement disorder was abolished in one patient postoperatively. Different mechanisms were identified that are relevant for the development of AVM-related movement disorders: mass effect, diaschisis, local parenchymal altered cerebral blood flow, and hemorrhagic or ischemic structural lesions.
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ranking = 2
keywords = cerebral
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3/119. Functional imaging in schizencephaly using [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO-SPECT).

    We analyzed interictal [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FGD-PET) and single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO-SPECT) in a 23-year-old female with schizencephaly. She had epilepsy and mild left hemiparesis, but was otherwise developmentally normal. We found the glucose metabolism and perfusion of the wall of the schizencephalic cleft to be identical to those of normal cerebral cortex. The wall of the transcerebral clefts, which were observed to be lined by abnormally organized gray matter as a result of a migration disorder, demonstrated gray matter metabolic activity and perfusion. FDG-PET and HMPAO-SPECT were thus found to be a useful complement to magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating schizencephaly.
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ranking = 2
keywords = cerebral
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4/119. Papillary fibroelastoma of the mitral valve 12 years after mitral valve commissurotomy.

    A 63 year-old woman who had had mitral valve commissurotomy 12 years earlier was seen because of rheumatic mitral stenosis and left brachial paresis due to cerebral embolism. On clinical evaluation, a diastolic rumble was heard over the mitral area, and the echocardiogram revealed a mass attached to the mitral subvalvular apparatus. The patient was operated on, and both the surgical and histologic findings depicted papillary fibroelastoma. This tumor may occur as an isolated lesion or be associated with mitral valve stenosis or other cardiac abnormalities, and it is an important source of emboli. Early echocardiographic diagnosis, followed by surgical excision, may avoid serious complications such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and sudden death.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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5/119. Recurrent spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in a congenitally afibrinogenemic patient: diagnostic pitfalls and therapeutic options.

    BACKGROUND: Coagulation disorders can cause intracerebral bleeding that may be difficult to detect since subsequent aberrant clot formation may mask early detection. This is an important pitfall because, when diagnosed early, bleeding in these patients is treatable. CASE DESCRIPTION: A patient with congenital afibrinogenemia presented with recurrent hemiparesis. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage was diagnosed, despite an initial negative CT scan. diagnosis, therapy, and complications of therapy are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Intracerebral hemorrhage must be strongly suspected in any patient with a coagulation disorder presenting with matching clinical symptoms. Therapy must be installed immediately, before additional investigations, and should be continued even when initial neuroimaging is negative.
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ranking = 7
keywords = cerebral
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6/119. MRI of cerebral alveolar echinococcosis.

    Cerebral alveolar echinococcosis is rare. We report a case with multiple intracranial masses which show cauliflower-like contrast enhancement pattern on MRI. The lesions originated from hepatic involvement with invasion of the inferior vena cava.
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ranking = 4
keywords = cerebral
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7/119. Mechanism in progressive lacunar infarction: a case report with magnetic resonance imaging.

    BACKGROUND: The mechanism of a progressive lacunar infarction is not well understood, and changes in ischemic tissue after onset have not yet been clarified clinically. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pathophysiological characteristics of a case of progressive lacunar infarction using diffusion-weighted and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. PATIENT: A 73-year-old woman was hospitalized 18 hours after stroke onset and was diagnosed as having a lacunar infarction in the perforating territory of the left middle cerebral artery. Despite treatment, the hemiparesis worsened, with the peak on the fourth day after onset. diffusion-weighted and conventional MRI scans provided clues to the pathogenesis. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: In the acute stage, gradual enlargement of the hyperintense lesion, reflecting fresh ischemic tissue, and neurological deterioration were observed by serial examination of diffusion-weighted MRI scans. A conventional coronal MRI scan revealed a 2-layered ischemic lesion, suggesting the involvement of perforating arteries. These findings indicated that hemodynamic impairment of the microcirculation in the perforators was the major cause of the lacunar infarction.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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8/119. cerebral infarction with ICA occlusion after Gamma Knife radiosurgery for pituitary adenoma: A case report.

    cranial irradiation may lead to accelerated atherosclerotic changes to small or medium sized arteries, but stroke associated with pituitary irradiation is not frequent. A patient treated with Gamma Knife radio-surgery (GKRS) for a pituitary adenoma suffered a cerebral infarction with internal carotid artery occlusion 4 years after radiosurgery. The patient was a 35-year-old male presenting with a visual disturbance. Endocrinological tests were normal. MRI revealed a 4.3 by 4.3 cm diameter invasive macroadenoma of the pituitary, projecting toward the suprasellar region and with cavernous sinus involvement with encasement of both internal carotid arteries (ICAs). GKRS was performed for residual tumor after a transcranial resection. The maximum dose was 40 Gy and the dose to the right carotid artery was below 20 Gy. The delayed hemiparesis was accompanied by a right capsular lacunar infarct shown on MRI. The images also showed a marked reduction in tumor size. Total, right ICA occlusion was confirmed by Doppler ultrasound. The patient had no history or signs of heart disease or metabolic disorder which could predispose to cerebrovascular
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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9/119. A case of very large cyst formation with Gamma Knife radiosurgery for an arteriovenous malformation.

    A 17-year-old male patient underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for a left parietal arteriovenous malformation (AVM), which presented with hemorrhage. The 15.0 cm3 nidus was covered with the 50% isodose. The maximum dose was 50 Gy and the margin dose was 25 Gy. Eleven months later he developed a right hemiparesis and MRI showed a large cyst. cerebral angiography showed partial obliteration of the AVM nidus. Stereotactic removal of cyst fluid (about 70 cm3) was performed, and an Ommaya reservoir was inserted. Cyst formation after GKRS for cerebral arteriovenous malformation is a is side effect of radiosurgery about which we need to learn more.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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10/119. sagittal sinus thrombosis associated with transient free protein s deficiency after L-asparaginase treatment: case report and review of the literature.

    Cerebral sinus thrombosis associated with acquired free protein s deficiency is very rare. We report the case of an adult patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who presented with repeated transient ischemic attacks followed by a seizure during consolidation treatment with L-asparaginase. Magnetic resonance of the brain showed a small cortical hemorrhagic infarct. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis was demonstrated by cerebral angiogram. A marked decrease of the free form of protein S was documented. One month later, when the patient was free of symptoms, the follow-up free protein S antigen level was restored to the normal range. We suggest that the sagittal sinus thrombosis in this patient was caused by acquired, transient free protein s deficiency. This case also extends the clinical spectrum of cerebral sinus thrombosis to include recurrent transient ischemic attacks alternating with seizures.
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ranking = 2
keywords = cerebral
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