Cases reported "Paresis"

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1/29. Pure motor monoparesis of a lower limb due to a small infarction in the contralateral motor cortex.

    Pure motor monoparesis (PMM) is a rare condition characterized by weakness limited to one limb without sensory disturbance. We report a 42-year-old woman with PMM of the right lower limb caused by a small infarction in the contralateral motor cortex that could be detected by the magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. This case suggests that small lesions, missed by carelessly performed scans, could be a potential cause of PMM. This is especially true in the case of lower limb PMM, because the lesion may be located in the top of the frontal lobe cortex, an area that can be easily missed by routine scans. Therefore, we should pay careful attention to the opposite side of the motor cortex in examining neuroimages of PMM cases.
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2/29. Functional imaging in schizencephaly using [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO-SPECT).

    We analyzed interictal [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FGD-PET) and single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO-SPECT) in a 23-year-old female with schizencephaly. She had epilepsy and mild left hemiparesis, but was otherwise developmentally normal. We found the glucose metabolism and perfusion of the wall of the schizencephalic cleft to be identical to those of normal cerebral cortex. The wall of the transcerebral clefts, which were observed to be lined by abnormally organized gray matter as a result of a migration disorder, demonstrated gray matter metabolic activity and perfusion. FDG-PET and HMPAO-SPECT were thus found to be a useful complement to magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating schizencephaly.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = cortex
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3/29. Parietal and cingulate processes in central pain. A combined positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of an unusual case.

    Parietal, insular and anterior cingulate cortices are involved in the processing of noxious inputs and genesis of pain sensation. Parietal lesions may generate central pain by mechanisms generally assumed to involve the 'medial' pain system (i.e. medial thalamic nuclei and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)). We report here PET and fMRI data in a patient who developed central pain and allodynia in her left side after a bifocal infarct involving both the right parietal cortex (SI and SII) and the right ACC (Brodmann areas 24 and 32), thus questioning the schematic representation of cortical pain processing. No rCBF increase was found in any part of the residual cingulate cortices, neither in the basal state (which included spontaneous pain and extended hypoperfusion around the infarct), nor during left allodynic pain. Thus, as previously observed in patients with lateral medullary infarct, neither spontaneous pain nor allodynia reproduce the cingulate activation observed after noxious pain in normal subjects. Conversely, both PET and fMRI data argue in favour of plastic changes in the 'lateral discriminative' pain system. Particularly, allodynia was associated with increased activity anteriorly to the infarct in the right insula/SII cortex. This response is likely to be responsible for the strange and very unpleasant allodynic sensation elicited on the left side by a non-noxious stimulation.
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ranking = 0.42857142857143
keywords = cortex
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4/29. Focal polymicrogyria in mother and son.

    This 9-year-old boy was admitted at the age of 2 with a diagnosis of congenital hemiparesis while the rest of physical and neurological examination was normal. His score in the Wechsler intelligence scale was 80. Right fronto-parietal cortical dysplasia with hemisphere atrophy was evident by computerized tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging. The latter, also disclosed abnormal thick cortex which was interpreted as polymicrogyria or pachygyria. karyotype was normal. He had a hemifacial motor seizure at the age of 7. At the age of 8 frequent atonic or inhibitory seizures were presented. Asymmetric bilateral spike discharges with high voltage in the right hemisphere during the EEG recording were found. His mother, a 35-year-old woman (Full scale; adult intelligence scale: 85) also had congenital hemiparesis. She never had seizures and her EEG was normal. magnetic resonance imaging disclosed right fronto-parietal cortical dysplasia with ipsilateral hemisphere atrophy. karyotype was normal. Our cases should be interpreted as a familial presentation of the anomaly, probably with autosomal-dominant transmission.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = cortex
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5/29. Reorganization of the motor cortex in a patient with congenital hemiparesis and mirror movements.

    Abnormal branching of corticospinal fibers from the unaffected motor cortex is responsible for mirror movements in patients with congenital hemiparesis, but it is unknown which mechanisms enable these patients to lateralize motor activity. Using multiunit electromyographic analysis and transcranial magnetic stimulation, the authors provide evidence for nonbranched crossed and uncrossed corticospinal projections and intracortical inhibition of the mirror hand. They propose that this remarkable reorganization of the unaffected motor cortex helps these patients to reduce mirror movements.
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ranking = 0.85714285714286
keywords = cortex
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6/29. Nonconvulsive focal inhibitory seizure: subdural recording from motor cortex.

    ARTICLE ABSTRACT: The authors obtained an ictal electrocorticogram with chronically implanted subdural electrodes from a 30-year-old man with a low grade glioma in the right postcentral gyrus who had a focal inhibitory seizure of the left arm. During the ictal paresis, the authors observed epileptic discharges in the positive arm motor area of the right precentral gyrus and in its rostral area, but not in the negative motor area. The epileptic activity probably inhibited the spinal motoneuron pool without eliciting excitatory activity in the corticospinal pathway.
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ranking = 0.57142857142857
keywords = cortex
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7/29. Chordoid meningioma.

    Chordoid meningioma is a relatively rare variant that is often associated with peritumoral lymphoplasmacellular infiltration causing Castleman syndrome (CS). We present a 44-year-old woman with chordoid meningioma not associated with CS. The patient presented with epilepsy and right hemiparesis (Todd's palsy) on admission. The radiological findings revealed an extraaxial mass lesion in the premotor cortex. They were compatible with a preoperative diagnosis of meningioma. No physical abnormalities related to CS were detected. A left frontal craniotomy was performed. The tumor surface was gelatinous, and it was totally resected with the attached dura mater (Simpson grade I). The patient had an uneventful recovery, and her seizures subsided. The pathological findings of the specimens revealed nests and cords of spindle and epithelioid cells with abundant myxoid matrix, mimicking the features of chordoma. On the basis of radiological, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic findings, chordoid meningioma was verified, and a review of the literature was performed.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = cortex
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8/29. Postoperative cortical venous infarction in tumours firmly adherent to the cortex.

    It is sometimes difficult to separate extra-axial tumours from the cortical veins in case of tumours attaching tightly to the cortex and the cortical veins. We present two patients having a postoperative cortical venous infarction. A 59 year old female had convexity meningioma above the motor cortex where abnormal cortical anastomotic veins developed. Transient hemiparesis occurred after total removal of the tumour because of venous infarction and cyst formation resulting from sacrifice of these veins which were tightly adherent to the tumour surface. A 15 year old boy with immature teratoma of the pineal region, showing several draining veins around the vascular-rich tumour, presented transient drowsiness, diplopia and partial impairment of bilateral visual acuity postoperatively because of localised cortical brain and venous damage. It is important to make an effort to preserve main cortical veins during operation as much as possible, even if the tumour adheres to the cortical surface.
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ranking = 0.85714285714286
keywords = cortex
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9/29. Combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation evidence of ipsilateral motor pathway with congenital brain disorder: a case report.

    We present the case of 28-year-old man with schizencephaly who had mild left hemiparesis with mirror movement. brain mapping using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for both hand muscles was done to evaluate his neurologic state. Motor evoked potential (MEP) from both abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscles was obtained simultaneously. fMRI showed that the left primary sensorimotor cortex became active when the right fingers performed the flexion-extension exercise. The left primary sensorimotor cortex, left prefrontal area, and both supplementary motor areas were activated with flexion-extension exercise of the left hand. brain mapping for both APB muscles using TMS showed that no MEP was evoked in the right hemisphere, but a APB total of 5 sites were evoked in the left hemisphere simultaneously. The optimal scalp site for both APB muscles was present at the same site. The MEPs of both muscles which were evoked by stimulation of the optimal scalp site, showed similar latencies, amplitudes, and figures of potential. The similarities in both MEPs and the same optimal scalp site support the assumption that MEPs of both APB muscles are produced by the corticospinal tract originating from the same motor cortex. Our results showed that the ipsilateral motor pathway extended from the unaffected left hemisphere to both hand muscles. This finding may reflect functional reorganization of motor area in a patient with congenital brain disorder.
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ranking = 0.42857142857143
keywords = cortex
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10/29. Focal status epilepticus: follow-up by perfusion- and diffusion MRI.

    diffusion-weighted MRI demonstrated bright right temporoparietal cortex, right hippocampus, and left cerebellum in a 63-year-old female suffering a focal convulsive status epilepticus. Hyperperfusion was noted in the right temporoparietal region. Two days later, a tendency to normalization of most of the diffusion and perfusion changes was noted, apart from the right hippocampus which became brighter on diffusion- and T2-weighted images. On the tenth day the apparent diffusion coefficient was slightly elevated, getting brighter on T2-weighted images with suspected mild post-contrast enhancement. We postulate that the discharging right hippocampus suffered cytotoxic edema, which later progressed to cell damage.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = cortex
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