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1/8. "Apraxia of eyelid opening" induced by levodopa therapy and apomorphine in atypical parkinsonism (possible progressive supranuclear palsy): a case report.

    We report a female patient in whom so-called apraxia of eyelid opening (AEO) developed after the onset of possible progressive supranuclear palsy (national institute of neurological disorders and stroke criteria) and the introduction of antiparkinsonian medications including levodopa. Although parkinsonian symptoms responded poorly to levodopa, AEO worsened after increasing levodopa dosage and disappeared when levodopa was discontinued. Later, a dose of apomorphine widely accepted for acute tests had no significant effect on limb motor activity but induced AEO. overall, these observations are grounds for thinking that AEO developing in the course of parkinsonism may be either disease- or drug-related. The possibility of manipulating dopaminergic treatment should always be considered when dealing with AEO associated with parkinsonism.
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ranking = 1
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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2/8. Vascular pseudoparkinsonism.

    Vascular pseudoparkinsonism may be confused with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. patients may be unnecessarily treated with anti-parkinsonian drugs while their underlying vascular disease is ignored. We investigated 250 parkinsonian patients seen in our movement disorders Clinic for a possible vascular etiology. After excluding those with a known secondary cause such as drug-induced parkinsonism, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy and hyperparathyroidism, brain computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging were performed on those who showed poor or no response to levodopa. In those with an ischemic lesion demonstrated on neuroimaging, anti-parkinsonian drugs were stopped and the patients were reassessed. Eleven patients (4.4%) had ischemic brain lesions accounting for their parkinsonism. All were initially diagnosed as Parkinson's disease because of the prominence of bradykinesia and rigidity. gait disturbance was also common, but resting tremor was distinctly absent. Three anatomical patterns with different prognosis were identified. Three patients with basal ganglia lacunar infarct recovered spontaneously, three with frontal lobe infarcts remained static and five with periventricular and deep subcortical white matter lesions had progressive deterioration. autopsy in one patient confirmed bilateral frontal lobe watershed infarcts and the absence of brain stem lewy bodies. Parkinsonian patients with poor or no response to levodopa therapy should be investigated for a vascular etiology.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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3/8. Diffuse lewy body disease presenting with supranuclear gaze palsy, parkinsonism, and dementia: a case report.

    A 67-year-old man with a family history of parkinsonism had visual complaints due to difficulty in convergence, which was followed 2 years later by development of bradykinesia and rigidity. The diagnosis of Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome was made on the basis of a supranuclear gaze palsy, bradykinesia, rigidity, and poor response to levodopa. However, subsequent neuropathological examination revealed diffuse lewy body disease with no evidence of neurofibrillary tangles involving either subcortical or brain stem structures.
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ranking = 0.30397412361101
keywords = supranuclear, palsy
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4/8. Cerebral hemosiderosis as a causative factor of vascular parkinsonism.

    Secondary parkinsonism has comprised about 20 to 40 percent of all parkinsonism patients in movement disorders clinic. Most of them are induced by certain medications. About 5 to 10 percent of these patients are caused by sudden vascular events, who suffer from their parkinsonism abruptly, and usually of aged people with quite apparent stroke risk factors. hemosiderosis was only occasionally reported as a causative factor in patients with parkinsonism, who presented with an insidious onset parkinsonism and a progressive supranuclear palsy-like clinical picture. We encountered two patients with stroke-related parkinsonism, whose high resolution MRI image showed apparent cortical or intraparenchymal hemosiderosis, although Binswanger type white matter change was also noted. Intracerebral hemosiderosis that manifests clinically as vascular parkinsonism might be much more frequent than we thought.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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5/8. Progressive supranuclear palsy misdiagnosed as schizophrenia.

    A 72-year-old woman, who had previously been diagnosed as schizophrenic, experienced a year of deterioration in her ability to care for herself. She was variously diagnosed as having parkinsonism, catatonic schizophrenia, atypical psychosis, depression, and dementia before she was appropriately diagnosed as having progressive supranuclear palsy.
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ranking = 0.50290891566403
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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6/8. Clinical and acoustical variability in hypokinetic dysarthria.

    Ten male patients with parkinsonism secondary to Parkinson's disease or progressive supranuclear palsy had clinical neurological, speech, and acoustical speech evaluations. In addition, seven of the patients were evaluated by x-ray computed tomography (CT) and (F-18)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Extensive variability of speech features, both clinical and acoustical, were found and seemed to be independent of the severity of any parkinsonian sign, CT, or FDG PET. In addition, little relationship existed between the variability across each measured speech feature. What appeared to be important for the appearance of abnormal acoustic measures was the degree of overall severity of the dysarthria. These observations suggest that a better understanding of hypokinetic dysarthria may result from more extensive examination of the variability between patients. Emphasizing a specific feature such as rapid speaking rate in characterizing hypokinetic dysarthria focuses on a single and inconstant finding in a complex speech pattern.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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7/8. Parkinsonian syndromes associated with hydrocephalus: case reports, a review of the literature, and pathophysiological hypotheses.

    We present nine cases of obstructive hydrocephalus (OH) associated with marked parkinsonism. Four patients had noncommunicating OH (NCOH) [three nontumoral aqueductal stenosis (AS), one tumoral AS]. The presentation was that of acute or subacute parkinsonism, usually at the time of acute recurrent ventricular obstruction. Three had a marked response to levodopa and required short-term treatment after shunting. However, one has remained levodopa dependent after 2 1/2 years. Three of the five patients with communicating OH (COH) presented with shunt-responsive normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), only later to develop progressive parkinsonism. One of these was found to have progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) at autopsy and PSP was clinically suspected in one other patient. A third had an atypical course suggestive of PSP; however, autopsy demonstrated the combination of Lewy body parkinsonism and the sequelae of hydrocephalus. The remaining two COH patients presented with levodopa-responsive parkinsonism. Subsequent clinical features and imaging studies suggested the presence of NPH. The pathophysiology of hydrocephalic parkinsonism probably involves variable sites of dysfunction in the nigrostriatal pathway and/or the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical circuit. At certain locations these pathways lie in close proximity to the ventricular system and may be subjected to mass effects and ischemic changes secondary to ventriculomegaly. The additional importance of possible associations between subcortical cerebral ischemia, NPH, and "degenerative" disorders such as PSP and Parkinson's disease is discussed.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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8/8. Parkinsonian syndrome as a neurological manifestation of Behcet's disease.

    BACKGROUND: The central nervous system is often involved in Behcet's disease. Most common are meningoencephalitic and brain stem syndromes. Although basal ganglia involvement is not an uncommon finding on necropsy, there are only single reports on extrapyramidal syndromes-dyskinesia, chorea and Parkinsonism in patients with Behcet's disease. CASE STUDY: We report a patient fulfilling the criteria of the International Study Group for Behcet's disease. He had recurrent oral ulcerations, bilateral posterior uveitis and retinal vasculitis, skin papules and pustules, and recurrent monoarthritis. neurologic examination revealed pseudobulbar palsy, slight and asymmetric bilateral pyramidal syndrome, muscle rigidity involving the four limbs, bradykinesia, masked face, and impaired postural reflexes. There was postural tremor in the extremities and myoclonic jerks involving the tongue and face muscles. magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated small bilateral multifocal hyperintense lesions, with right predilection, involving the periventricular white matter, brain stem and basal ganglia. CONCLUSIONS: The Parkinsonian syndrome found in our patient might be due to involvement of both substantia nigra and basal ganglia. This case further emphasizes the wide spectrum of the neurological manifestations of Behcet's disease.
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ranking = 7.605435045211E-6
keywords = palsy
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