Cases reported "Parkinson Disease"

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1/99. Transplant of cultured neuron-like differentiated chromaffin cells in a Parkinson's disease patient. A preliminary report.

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of Parkinson's Disease (PD) has been attempted by others by transplanting either the patient's own adrenal medullary tissue or fetal substantia nigra into caudate or putamen areas. However, the difficulties inherent in using the patient's own adrenal gland, or the difficulty in obtaining human fetal tissue, has generated the need to find alternative methods. methods: We report here of an alternative to both procedures by using as transplant material cultured human adrenal chromaffin cells differentiated into neuron-like cells by extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF). RESULTS: The results of this study show that human differentiated chromaffin cells can be grafted into the caudate nucleus of a PD patient, generating substantial clinical improvement, as measured by the Unified Rating Scale for PD, which correlated with glucose metabolism and D2 DA receptor increases as seen in a PET scan, while allowing a 70% decrease in L-Dopa medication. DISCUSSION: This is the first preliminary report showing that transplants of cultured differentiated neuron-like cells can be successfully used to treat a PD patient.
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2/99. Numerous and widespread alpha-synuclein-negative lewy bodies in an asymptomatic patient.

    lewy bodies (LB) and pale bodies (PB), their putative precursors, can be found in a spectrum of diseases characterized by parkinsonism and/or dementia. Furthermore, LB are occasionally observed in some other neurodegenerative diseases and in normal aging. Classical LB are typically found in the brain stem, especially in the substantia nigra, where these inclusions are associated with neuronal loss and clinical signs of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). The so-called cortical LB occur in the cerebral cortex, amygdala and claustrum with little or no neuronal loss and are clinically associated with dementia in dementia with LB (DLB). We describe a patient without apparent clinical signs of parkinsonism and/or dementia, whose brain contained numerous classical-like LB, pale inclusions with features of PB and transitions between these two. These inclusions had similar immunohistological (ubiquitin positive; neurofilament positive; tau negative) and ultrastructural features as the LB in PD and DLB except for the lack of immunoreactivity for alpha-synuclein. The pons and cerebral cortex showed the highest number of LB, up to 165/1.76 mm2. These numbers were contrasted by the lack of obvious neuronal loss or gliosis. The absence of alpha-synuclein reactivity in the LB in this symptomless patient corroborates the hypothesis that alpha-synuclein accumulation in LB is an important step in neurodegeneration in PD and DLB, but tones down the role of alpha-synuclein in LB formation in general. This patient seems to represent a new variant in the spectrum of diseases associated with LB.
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keywords = cortex
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3/99. A mutation at codon 279 (N279K) in exon 10 of the Tau gene causes a tauopathy with dementia and supranuclear palsy.

    Recently intronic and exonic mutations in the Tau gene have been found to be associated with familial neurodegenerative syndromes characterized not only by a predominantly frontotemporal dementia but also by the presence of neurological signs consistent with the dysfunction of multiple subcortical neuronal circuitries. Among families, the symptomatology appears to vary in quality and severity in relation to the specific Tau gene mutation and often may include parkinsonism, supranuclear palsies, and/or myoclonus, in addition to dementia. We carried out molecular genetic and neuropathological studies on two patients from a French family presenting, early in their fifth decade, a cognitive impairment and supranuclear palsy followed by an akinetic rigid syndrome and dementia. The proband died severely demented 7 years after the onset of the symptoms; currently, his brother is still alive although his disease is progressing. In both patients, we found a Tau gene mutation in exon 10 at codon 279, resulting in an asparagine to lysine substitution (N279K). Neuropathologically, widespread neuronal and glial tau accumulation in the cortex, basal ganglia, brain stem nuclei as well as in the white matter were the hallmark of the disease. These deposits were shown by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy, using a battery of antibodies to phosphorylation-dependent and phosphorylation-independent epitopes present in multiple tau regions. In the neocortex, tau-immunopositive glial cells were more numerous than immunopositive neurons; the deeper cortical layers as well as the white matter adjacent to the cortex contained the largest amount of immunolabeled glial cells. In contrast, some brain stem nuclei contained more neurons with tau deposits than immunolabeled glial cells. The correlation of clinical, neuropathological and molecular genetic findings emphasize the phenotypic heterogeneity of diseases caused by Tau gene mutations. Furthermore, to test the effect of the N279K mutation and compare it with the effect of the P301L exon 10 mutation on alternative splicing of Tau exon 10, we used an exon amplification assay. Our results suggest that the N279K mutation affects splicing similar to the intronic mutations, allowing exon 10 to be incorporated more frequently in the Tau transcript.
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4/99. The behavioral complications of pallidal stimulation: a case report.

    We report a case of recurrent manic episodes associated with chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting globus pallidus (GP) in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cardinal PD symptoms and dyskinesia improved with DBS, and neuropsychological testing found improvements in visuospatial measures associated with left DBS and in verbal memory with right DBS when compared to the patient's preoperative baseline. Under conditions of right, left, and bilateral DBS, the patient experienced bouts of mania and hypomania lasting several days at a time. Positron emission tomography (PET) with (15)O-labeled water was performed after his first manic episode under four conditions: no stimulation, right DBS, left DBS, and bilateral DBS. Although no manic switch occurred during the course of the PET study, all three DBS conditions were associated with decreases in regional flow in the left parahippocampus and hippocampus and right mid-cingulate gyrus. Increases in flow in left inferior frontal area, bilateral insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and cuneus were common to all DBS conditions. GP stimulation in PD may be associated with behavioral and cognitive effects. Distributed blood flow changes observed with pallidal DBS support a role for the pallidum in cognition and affective regulation.
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keywords = cortex
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5/99. A case of frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism of early onset with progressive supranuclear palsy-like features.

    We report a patient with frontotemporal degeneration and parkinsonism with mental retardation. The patient was a 54-year-old man who had parkinsonism that resembled progressive supranuclear palsy, frontotemporal degeneration and myoclonus. His family included many affected members. Neuropathologically, there was degeneration of the frontal and temporal cortices, the basal ganglia, the brainstem and the cerebellum. Microscopically, neuronal loss was severe in the frontal and temporal cortex, the globus pallidus, substantia nigra, red nucleus and dentate nucleus. Fibrillary changes were found in neurons and glia that were immunostained for tau. Although we could not define the genetic abnormalities, we thought that this case might have involved frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17.
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6/99. Familial frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism with a novel N296H mutation in exon 10 of the tau gene and a widespread tau accumulation in the glial cells.

    We report a 62-year-old Japanese man with familial frontotemporal dementia and a novel missense mutation (N296H) in exon 10 of the tau gene. The patient presented with frontal signs followed by temporal signs and parkinsonism. The brain showed localized frontotemporal lobe atrophy including the precentral gyrus and discoloration of the substantia nigra, and revealed severe neuronal loss with proliferation of tau-positive protoplasmic astroglia in the affected cerebral cortex, tau-positive coiled bodies and threads in the subcortical white matter, and tau-positive pretangle neurons in the subcortical and brain stem nuclei. There were no tau-positive neurofibrillary tangles, Pick bodies, tuft-shaped astrocytes or astrocytic plaques in the cerebral cortex. Immunoelectron microscopically, phosphorylated tau accumulated in both neurons and glial cells in different modalities, such as glial filaments in protoplasmic astroglia, straight tubules in coiled bodies, and free ribosomes in pretangle neurons. These findings suggest that tau proteins are not always assembled in abnormal filaments such as twisted ribbons, paired helical filaments and straight tubules in neurons and glial cells, which have been shown in previous cases with frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. immunoblotting of sarkosyl-insoluble tau exhibited accumulation of four-repeat tau isoforms in the brain. The N296H mutation may interfere with the ability of mutated tau to bind with microtubules and lead to tau aggregation. Further study is necessary to determine whether this mutation can account for the characteristic tau pathology of this case.
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keywords = cortex
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7/99. Progressive supranuclear palsy on guam.

    This is the first report demonstrating that progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) exists on guam. This 75-year-old Guamanian Chamorro patient with slight dementia and rigidity with restriction of ocular up gaze was diagnosed as parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC) of guam clinically. However, neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) were scarcely seen in the cerebral cortices and hippocampus, but many NFTs, composed of 15-17 nm straight tubules, were detected in the subthalamic nucleus and brain stem. A large number of tuft-shaped astrocytes were observed in the putamen and motor cortex, and numerous argyrophilic grains were seen in the CA1 and subiculum. These pathological findings are different from those of PDC and consistent with PSP. The present case indicates that PSP and PDC clinically resemble each other, and that precise neuropathological examination is indispensable for the final diagnosis of the patient with parkinsonism, dementia and disturbance of vertical external ocular movement.
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ranking = 0.79724634240397
keywords = cortex
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8/99. Presynaptic parkinsonism in multiple system atrophy mimicking Parkinson's disease: a clinicopathological case study.

    We describe the clinicopathological findings in a patient aged 63 years at death who, at age 55 years, developed levodopa-responsive parkinsonism with no atypical features. A diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) was made. During the clinical course, fluctuations and dyskinesias appeared. Eight years after onset, he was successfully treated with subthalamic nucleus stimulation but died 3 weeks postoperatively from pulmonary embolus. Brain autopsy showed marked neuronal loss and gliosis in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus, and, to a much lesser extent, in the basis pontis, inferior olivary nuclei, and cerebellar cortex. Striatum was normal. There were numerous oligodendroglial and neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions and neuropil threads, the highest density being localized in the pons and cerebellar white matter. No lewy bodies were observed. We conclude that nigral, presynaptic parkinsonism may occur in multiple system atrophy, which even in the long run can be indistinguishable from PD. Putaminal preservation accounts for good response to both levodopa therapy and subthalamic nucleus stimulation.
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keywords = cortex
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9/99. Extradural motor cortex stimulation for advanced parkinson disease. Report of two cases.

    motor cortex stimulation is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used for pain control. The authors report their results treating two patients with typical parkinson disease. Unilateral motor cortex stimulation proved to be beneficial bilaterally. motor cortex stimulation may represent a cost-effective alternative to deep brain stimulation.
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keywords = cortex
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10/99. Dementia with lewy bodies showing advanced Lewy pathology but minimal Alzheimer pathology--Lewy pathology causes neuronal loss inducing progressive dementia.

    The present study concerns an autopsied case of dementia with lewy bodies (DLB) showing advanced Lewy pathology but minimal Alzheimer pathology. The patient was a 50-year-old Japanese male without inheritance. His initial symptoms at the age of 43 suggested the diagnosis ofjuvenile idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), but were followed by memory disturbance 1 year later. He showed parkinsonism, dementia, personality change, fluctuating cognition and visual hallucinations 3 years later. Neuroradiological examination revealed moderate brain atrophy, predominantly in the frontal and temporal lobes. Neuropathological examination demonstrated a widespread occurrence of lewy bodies (LB) with LB-related neurites not only in the brainstem but also in the cerebrum. The present case showed Lewy pathology which corresponded to stage IV by our staging and was parallel to neuronal loss. There was marked neuronal loss with many LB-related neurites in the CA2 of the hippocampus. neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) were almost restricted to the entorhinal cortex, while senile plaques were absent. Consequently, the present case was pathologically diagnosed as having DLB of the neocortical type, pure form. In the present study, we suggest that Lewy pathology in the cerebral cortex could be responsible for progressive dementia.
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keywords = cortex
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